A. Risk factors for osteoporosis include female gender, increasing age, family history, Caucasian or Asian race, estrogen deficient state, nulliparity, sedentarism, lifelong history of low calcium intake, smoking, excessive alcohol or caffeine consumption, and use of glucocorticoid drugs. Patients who have already sustained a fragility fracture have a markedly increased risk of sustaining further fractures.

B. Bone density testing. Bone density is the strongest predictor of fracture risk. Bone density can be assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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