Surgical correction

1. Surgery is used primarily in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence due to urethral hypermobility or intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Urethral hypermobility is corrected with retropubic urethropexy, transvaginal needle suspension, or a suburethral sling.

2. Retropubic urethropexy: vaginal tissue underneath the urethra is suspended to the pubic symphysis (Marshall-Marchetti-Krantz urethropexy) or Cooper's ligament (Burch colposuspension). The transvaginal needle suspension procedure is performed via the vaginal route with a small abdominal incision. The success rates for the retropubic urethropexy, transvaginal needle suspension, and suburethral sling are 80%, 70%, and 85%, respectively.

3. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency can be managed with a suburethral sling or periurethral collagen injections.

References: See page 195.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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