The prevalence of anemia is about 29 to 30 cases per 1,000 females of all ages and six cases per 1,000 males under the age of 45, rising to a peak of 18.5 cases per 1,000 men over age 75. Deficiencies of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid are the most common causes.
I. Clinical manifestations. Severe anemia may be tolerated well if it develops gradually. Patients with an Hb of less than 7 g/dL will have symptoms of tissue hypoxia (fatigue, headache, dyspnea, light-headedness, angina). Pallor, syncope and tachycardia may signal hypovolemia and impending shock.
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