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Ministry Letters

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Solidphase Array Sequencing Devices

''Sequencing by synthesis'' is a method common to primer extension methods such as SNuPE and pyrosequencing, in which a unitary base addition chemistry that allows single nucleotide additions to growing chains to be monitored on each oligonucleotide feature, simultaneously with the addition of one of the four differentially labeled terminating nucleotides. Church and colleagues

Pathologic Features

Microscopically, VCs consist of thickened club-shaped filiform projections lined with thick, well-differentiated squamous epithelium with marked surface ke-ratinisation ( church-spire keratosis). The squamous epithelial cells in VCs are large 71 and lack the usual cytologic criteria of malignancy. Mitoses are rare, and are only observed in the suprabasal layer there are no abnormal mitoses. VCs invade the subjacent stroma with well-defined pushing rather than infiltrative borders (Fig. 1.15). A lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory response is common in the stroma.

The Evolutionary Neurodevelopmental Perspective

Forth both its adaptive and maladaptive potentials into subsequent generations. Although lethal mutations sometimes occur, the evolutionary success of most organisms is dependent on the fit between the entire configuration of their characteristics and potentials and those of the environment. Likewise, psychological health is dependent on the fit between the entire configuration of a person's characteristics and potentials with those of the environments in which the person functions, such as family, job, school, church, and recreation.

Phase 2predonation Family Evaluation

Church of the Brethren Organ donation is encouraged. Church of Christ Organ donation is an individual decision. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Organ donation is an individual Episcopal Church The Church does not object to donation as long as it is done reverently. Greek Orthodox Church Donation is not consistent with traditional Orthodox practice and belief. Lutheran Church Organ donation is an individual decision. Mennonite Church Organ donation and transplantation are acceptable. Methodist Church Organ donation is encouraged. Presbyterian Church There is no position.

Democracy and Minorities

And what about minorities Will 51 of the people decide about the access to health provisions of the other 49 Is the parliamentary democracy the modern variation of dictatorship of the majority over the minority Are elections a modern non-bloody form of revolution In a modern society democracy has many faces. As I pointed out before, it is not only the parliamentary forum where the decisions, for instance about health care, are taken. In many countries democracy works on a federal level, on a state level, in the local community, by means of membership of trade unions, on the work floor, possibly in the church, in consumer organizations and through a critical approach to the role of insurance companies and other health-related industries (13). And the individual plays in this respect mostly more than one role, and perhaps may even take various standpoints and at different times show various faces, depending on the forum and regarding his personal interests. This leads to a result which...

Letter 12 To Catherine Darwin

You must have been surprised at not having heard sooner about the house. Emma and I only returned yesterday afternoon from sleeping there. I will give you in detail, as my father would like, MY opinion on it--Emma's slightly differs. Position --about 1 4 of a mile from the small village of Down in Kent--16 miles from St. Paul's--8 1 2 miles from station (with many trains) which station is only 10 from London. This is bad, as the drive from i.e. on account of the hills is long. I calculate we are two hours going from London Bridge. Village about forty houses with old walnut trees in the middle where stands an old flint church and the lanes meet. Inhabitants very respectable--infant school--grown up people great musicians--all touch their hats as in Wales and sit at their open doors in the evening no high road leads through the village. The little pot-house where we slept is a grocer's shop, and the landlord is the carpenter--so you may guess the style of the village. There are butcher...

Life in New York City

They had met in 1932 at a Christmas party in the International House. She was the niece of a well-known Long Island family, the Dreiers, and had come to the USA as an exchange student at Wheaton College, Massachusetts for one year. After she had returned to Germany in 1933, he proposed to her during his next visit to Europe in the summer of 1934 (when he also attended the VIIIth International Ornithological Congress in Oxford with Erwin Stresemann as President). He left on SS Veendam in June and returned to New York on SS Statendam on 14 October. Ernst was not certain that Gretel would say yes in view of his recent kidney operation (p. 301) and the fact that she would have to leave Germany. However, his doubts were unfounded. He traveled again to Europe on SS Europa on 26 April 1935 and they were married in Freiburg in Breisgau on 4 May, a beautiful spring day when everything was in flower. The wedding ceremony was officiated by Gretel Simon's brother Ludwig, who was a minister, and...

Weight dropcompression

An additional and straightforward technique to use on cultures is to mechanically compress the cultures with a weight, akin to the weight drop method developed initially by Allen (1911) to study spinal cord injury in vivo. Indeed, one of the first in vitro models for central nervous system (CNS) injury used this technique of spinal cord cultures (Balentine et al., 1988). The technique is well suited to organotypic cultures that have a defined thickness and more realistic 3D architecture, and can be used to study the effects of both mechanical injury and a superimposed hypoxic injury (Adamchik et al., 2000). The order of the injuries can be changed, so that the mechanical injury can be considered the secondary injury, or vice versa. The technique to compress the tissue construct can also change a dropped weight can be replaced by a rolling stainless steel bar, or a composite foam indentor over a region of the culture (Adamchik et al., 2000). Recently, this type of model showed the...

The Interpersonal Perspective

Elsa is the first person in her family to attend college. She describes her father as a proud but angry man, ruling the house by fear. Her mother insisted she do well in school and rise above their immigrant heritage. Elsa attended church regularly, kept house for the family, and did well enough to win a college scholarship, which paid most of her tuition. She is ashamed of her sister, who left home at 15 and contacts the family only in dire circumstances. Elsa still lives at home, which allows me to save rent money. She has no social life beyond church, but states that she neither needs nor has the time for one. Her days are well organized, with intense devotion to her work. She becomes angry thinking about others who fail to use their time wisely, namely, the students in her two classes.

Variations of the Compulsive Personality

Bureaucratic compulsives ally themselves with traditional values, established authorities, and formal organizations. Most other compulsive subtypes feel conflicted, angered, and even oppressed by these influences, although their overt awareness of this conflict is suppressed. Bureaucratic compulsives are somewhat more aware of this conflict than their counterparts, and instead of allowing their feelings to cause even the slightest difficulty, they wholeheartedly embrace the order and structure inherent in recognized institutions, authorities, and social mores. They flourish in organizational settings, feeling comforted, strengthened, and empowered by clearly defined superior and subordinate relationships, definite roles, and known expectations and responsibilities. Once established, they function loyally and dependably. In effect, these individuals use highly developed and formalized external structures to compensate for the internal sense of ambivalence and indecisiveness that...

Concluding Remarks

K. (2002). Vascular responses in the skin An accessible model of inflammation. News Physiol. Sci 17, 170-174. 9. Clough, G. F., Bennett, A. R., and Church, M. K. (1998). Effects of H, antagonists on the cutaneous vascular response to histamine and bradykinin a study using scanning laser Doppler imaging. B. J. Dermatol. 138, 806-814. 15. Leurs, R., Church, M. K., and Taglialatela, M. (2002). H1-antihistamines inverse agonism, anti-inflammatory actions and cardiac effects. Clin. Exp. Allergy 32, 489-498. Martin Church is a pharmacologist with a special interest in the mechanisms of allergic responses and the implications of these for treatment, areas on which he has published widely.

Formulating a strategic plan for a local system of mental health services

Working at the local community level makes building links with key local figures both useful and inevitable. They will most often include not only family doctors and general hospital and other health service clinicians, but also social service and housing department staff, patients and their representatives, local politicians, local newspapers and radio stations, family members, and carer groups. But a wider corona of stakeholders may also wish to have their presence and interests represented and respected. This wider set of constituencies can include neighbourhood or residents' associations, staff, governors, and parents of local schools, shopkeepers, local politicians, church ministers, and police officers. The importance of these stakeholders emerges particularly at times when plans are being developed to open new mental health facilities.

Role of Calcium and Calcium Dependent Proteases

The potential role of calcium influx was further shown by the use of chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of calcium-binding protein calmodulin. Application of chlorpromazine inhibited the early structural changes observed during wallerian degeneration (de Medinaceli and Church, 1984).

The role of advocacy selfhelp and carer groups and voluntary organizations

Most people do not learn about psychiatric conditions in school, and the attitudes of society make it unlikely that much can be learnt from casual conversations. Lay organizations provide much-needed education about the symptoms of illness, treatment options, and referrals to caring providers. An example of such an organization is the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill ( NAMI) in the United States. Its 'Family to Family Education Program' gives participants a thorough education, from discovery to recovery. In 12 weekly sessions taught by experienced families, the basics of brain science, new medications and side-effects, housing and employment, access to appropriate government supports, and maintaining a healthy personal lifestyle are all covered in an informal discussion format. NAMI offers patients support groups and 'Living with Schizophrenia', a peer-to-peer programme encouraging self-management, adherence to treatment, and realistic hope. NAMI also educates providers about...

Taking leave of Laplace

In fact the notion of a deterministic program, as it emerged in the work of the logicians of the 1930s (the theory of computability was developed by Curry, Church, Turing, Kleene and others in the years 1930-1936) is inherently Laplacean, as clearly spelled out by Turing. That is to say, it implies complete predictability of the states of a computer running a program (see Longo 2003a). From this ideal model, which stems from the logical calculi of formal deduction rather than from physics, the Laplacean paradigm of the brain as a Turing machine running a program has been transferred to the study of cognition in the biological setting. It is of crucial relevance to the project we are pursuing here that the abstract description of a Turing machine is in no way dependent on our understanding it as a spatial structure. The Cartesian dimension of its material being has no influence whatever on its expressive powers. Moreover,

Information and geometric structure

Moreover a number of notable mathematical results of the 1930s demonstrated that all discrete encodings and their effective treatment are equivalent. Kleene, Turing, Church et al. demonstrated the equivalence of (very) different formalisations of computability the numerical functions calculated by using the systems of Herbrand, Curry, Godel, Church, Kleene and Turing were the same. By means of an astonishing philosophical sleight of hand, trading on the surprising and technically difficult nature of these results, and influenced by the surrounding intellectual climate of formalist and positivist ideas, the claim was later made that any physical form in which information is processed, and thus any biological form of information processing or any form of intelligence, can be encoded in any such formal system, thus it can be encoded in the form of the strings of 1s and 0s used in the memory stores of digital computers - see Longo (2003a) for more on some parodies of Church-Turing thesis.

Can SAM sequencing aid SBS array shortread sequencing

Church and colleagues have also reported extensive sequencing of prokaryote genomes using a PCR-colony sequencing method (Mitra et al., 2003) and a related sequencing by ligation approach (Shendure et al, 2005) with reads of 26 bp per amplicon. They note that during their ground-breaking resequencing of the entire 3.3Mb genome of an E. coli strain that, despite 10 times coverage in terms of raw basepairs, only 91.4 of the genome had at least one time coverage'', and further noted substantial fluctuations in coverage were observed due to the stochasticity of the RCA step of library construction. While, their data indicates that the vast majority of the problem is due to insufficient formation of closed circles during the library construction prior to RCA, we would suggest that some residual problems could be due to sequence biases as well as some very difficult'' sequence that larger library sizes and oversampling may not fully address.

Costs and coverage for SAM sequencing

Our modeling also suggests that Bermuda Agreement accuracy for finished sequence can be achieved with short-read SAM sequencing, using no more than 2-3-fold higher cover than used for conventional array pyrosequencing or equivalent array-based SBS method. This observation is important because it means that the anticipated costs associated with the SAM approach are not significantly greater than for conventional short-read shotgun, while for intractable sequence regions the costs are significantly lower for SAM sequencing than for conventional shotgun approaches alone. These findings are also highly significant for array sequencing where 2-3-fold higher sequence coverage can easily be achieved at minimum cost. Importantly, the depth of coverage achievable on SBS arrays can reasonably provide data necessary for SAM assembly with errors 1 in 10,000. For example, an array with only 100,000 features and delivering 50 bp read data is sufficient to sequence 10 mutants of a 50 kb target to...

Dynamical systems and perceptionaction models

This hypothesis agrees with recent research on the computational power of dynamical systems whose architecture does not conform to that of a Turing machine (see Churchland & Sejnowski 1992), the implicit suggestion being that the Church-Turing Thesis might be rejected. The idea behind such a hypothesis goes beyond the remark, common among computer scientists, that the design of an actual computer is far from that of a Turing machine, or the remark that at least some features of mind call for analogical, rather than digital, computation. Much work has yet to be done to make it clear in which sense top-down control is still achievable, as we try expanding the range of computability by means that are acclaimed candidates for non-computable procedures (just think of chaotic systems).

The Self Defeating Masochistic Personality

Though she has worked very hard, things somehow never work out for Theresa. She goes to school, works a full-time job, and takes care of the house, but sees herself as incompetent regardless of the effort put forth. Everything I touch falls apart. she says. Her performance at work is excellent, but she forgets to ask for a lighter load during midterms and has to call in sick, angering her coworkers. Then, her hard-fought grades sag because she allows herself to be scheduled for overtime during finals week. Sometimes, she takes classes that are too hard without the necessary prerequisites and has to give up and withdraw, forfeiting her effort completely. When her husband volunteers to find her a tutor and do the housework, she refuses, saying she doesn't want to burden him with responsibilities that are rightfully hers. Yet, despite her work, she always finds time to send birthday and holiday cards and even volunteers at church, but complains that no one follows up on her offers of...

For Designing a Treatment Plan

Informal systems, by comparison, are generally better able to tolerate greater deviance in the template than are the formal systems. This allows the patients (residents) more degrees of freedom before they are diagnosed with pathology. These informal systems (e.g., church groups, neighbors, or kinship networks) are thus less likely to identify a personality disorder in favor of accepting the individual's personality style.

Object relations 2 Balint and Winnicott

'Object relations' is a broad church containing disparate thinkers, united mainly by their common membership of the British Psychoanalytic Society, which managed to avoid the splits typical of some psychoanalytic societies by its 'gentleman's agreement' that created a structure in which different theoretical tendencies could coexist

Family Medical Tradition

James Parkinson was born on April 11, 1755, at No. 1 Hoxton Square in the parish of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, England, to John and Mary Parkinson. Hoxton, now a London neighborhood but then a separate village, grew from a medieval town to a place of gardens and large residential homes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Subsequently, Hoxton ceded to industrial development, overcrowding, and poverty in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.1-4 The parish church of St. Leonard's remained a focal point, and here Parkinson was baptized, married, and buried. Parkinson practiced medicine nearby in a two-storied house behind the main house at No. 1 Hoxton Square. Regarding family life, it is known that James Parkinson had a younger brother, William, and a sister, Mary Sedgwick, who married Parkinson's close friend, John Keys. During his apprenticeship, James Parkinson married Mary Dale in 1781 in St. Leonard's church. James and Mary Parkinson had six children, of which one, John...

The use of mental techniques for assisting improving and expanding memory

Have memorized no less than 100000 loci, and that ' on his travels, he does not cease to make new places in some monastery or church, remembering through them histories, or fables, or Lenten sermons. He can repeat from memory the whole of the canon law, text and gloss two hundred speeches or sayings of Cicero three hundred sayings of the philosophers twenty thousands legal points.' (Yates 1966). Superb memory and mnemotechniques were considered highly useful in church and government, and therefore, in classic education, Memoria (trained memory) was part of the curriculum of language arts, side by side with grammar, logic, and rhetoric. It was told of Thomas Aquinas, the scholastic philosopher and theologian of the thirteenth century, that he was able to dictate simultaneously to four secretaries on four different subjects, and even go on dictating while asleep in that he excelled Julius Caesar, who, fourteen centuries earlier, was said to be capable of dictating to four people while...

The Case of Doreen Schizotypal Personality Disorder

She lived at home and says, I did nothing for a while and it was okay. My mother would take me out with her to see her friends, and I didn't like that, so I wanted another job. Again her father knew someone in management at a nearby chain supermarket and arranged a job interview for Doreen. She accepted a job in the bakery section working 20 hours per week. Her job consisted of monitoring the preparation orders and display stock. She was a reliable and consistent worker, valued by the store. According to Doreen, her off hours were mostly spent in solitary pursuits, except when her mother made me go on visits with her. A few times during these years, one or the other parent would suggest that Doreen join a group (e.g., through their church), so that she might socialize with others around her own age. Eventually, they gave up. She was indeed like her father's older brother, Jake an odd soul, disconnected but regular as a clock. Doreen liked saying this about herself.

The Sadistic Personality

Sadistic Borderline Personality Disorder

Chuck was born in South Boston to a fiercely religious Italian family, the fifth of six children. He notes proudly that his family had no goddamn idea what to do with me. His four sisters are described as virgins that should be in a nunnery. His only brother has always been actively involved with the church, and considered joining the seminary, but decided to teach instead. I had no such ambitions, Chuck states, and the family always looked down on me. He notes sarcastically that there was so damn much saintli-ness in our family that God must have decided to throw in a devil, me, to test their faith. He smiles at that idea, and goes on to describe himself as a tough little fucker who was first a problem in school, then a problem because he was never in school, then a juvenile delinquent with a talent for fighting. My smart mouth got me in a lot of trouble when I was young. That's the reason I'm so damn good at my job. He still studies weapons, and collects books on war.

Dualism and Its Discontents

Bodies and guide their bodies, but that are not part of their bodies and are not subject to the same physical laws as their bodies. This idea has been widely accepted since the time of Descartes, and is often credited to him, but only because he stated it so clearly I think it is what anyone would come to believe if they did a few experiments. Suppose I ring a bell in your presence, and then play a recording of the 1812 Overture for you. You are supposed to raise your hand when you hear the sound of that bell. How do you know when you hear that sound Introspectively, it seems that, though you don't actually hear a bell ringing, you can summon a mental image of it that has the same tonal quality as the bell and compare it at the crucial moment to the sounds of the church bells near the end of the overture. (You can summon it earlier, too, if not as vividly, and note its absence from the music.) Now the question is, where do mental sounds (or visual images, or memories of smells) reside...

The maxim that entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity

Influential medieval scholastic (Adams McCord 1987 Colish 1997). In his analysis of the Universe and human ability to perceive it, Ockham proposed that phenomena should be better explained in terms of the simplest causes rather than the more complex ones. Admittedly, he was not the first to suggest such a principle of parsimony. Even more so, his principle was rather qualified 'No plurality should be assumed', said Ockham, 'unless it can be proved (a) by reason, or (b) by experience, or (c) by some infallible authority' (Adams McCord 1987), meaning that the Bible, the Saints, and the Church can make exceptions, and, furthermore, God is not in the game 'There are many things that God does with more that he could do with fewer' (ibid.). In spite of his hesitation to regard the principle as a sweeping universal, Ockham's name became associated with it forever. Almost half a millennium later, the French philosopher de Condillac referred to Ockham's principle metaphorically as 'the razor...

Analytical psychology Jung

Jung was born on 26 July 1875, the son of a pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church who was also an Oriental and classical scholar. He was an only child for his first 9 years and, since he was more intelligent than most of his rural schoolfellows, remained somewhat isolated. He became a medical student at the University of Basel. On completing his medical degree, he had almost decided to become a surgeon, when he came across a textbook of psychiatry by Krafft-Ebing which persuaded him to specialize in this neglected branch of medicine. From 1900 to 1909, he was a psychiatrist at the Burgh lzli mental hospital in Z rich, where he became particularly interested in schizophrenia and carried out original research which is reported in the first two volumes of The Collected Works of C.G. Jung.(12)

Situational Multifunctionality

In addition to the situational uses explicitly described by marketers, consumers tend to find alternate uses for products on their own. At least one published study 1 has indicated that consumers find multiple uses for products for three primary reasons convenience, effectiveness, and cost. Savvy marketers have learned to exploit such alternate situational uses to help differentiate their products in the marketplace. An understanding of situational multifunctionality can help support advertising that promotes new uses for old brands. Wansink and Gilmore found that in some cases, it may be less expensive to increase the usage frequency of current users than to convert new users in a mature market 2 . Defining multifunctional benefits for a product can help revitalize mature brands, and there are numerous examples of brands that have energized their sales by advertising new usage situations. For example, Arm & Hammer Baking Soda was once primarily known for use in baking. But sales...

Parkinsons Legacy

Parkinson's legacy encompasses not only medical works such as the well known Essay on the Shaking Palsy, but also a diverse assortment of writings on politics, medical care, chemistry, and geology. Although these writings provide insight into Parkinson's character, no portrait of him exists. A plaque designates his house in Hoxton Square, now a factory site, and an inscribed marble tablet, a gift by St. Leonard's Hospital to commemorate his bicentennial in 1955, can be seen in St. Leonard's Church.132 Several pieces from his fossil collection are in possession of the British Museum of Natural History.32 His Essay on the Shaking Palsy is nearly impossible to find in original, although several reprints exist. Other writings can be found in libraries and among antiquarians. These writings share the same sense of combined clarity, humility, and competence revealed in the celebrated Essay. Charcot's proclivity for eponyms introduced the term Parkinson's disease, a name that has retained...

Caladrius

Sources Pierre de Beauvais, A Medieval Book ofBeasts, trans. Guy R Mermier (Lewiston, N.Y. Edwin Mellon, 1992), pp. 27-28 George Claridge Druce, The Caladrius and Its Legend, Sculpt ur ed upon t he Twelft h-Cent ury Doorway of Alne Church, Yorkshire, Archaeological Journal 69 (1912) 381-416 T. H. White, ed., The Bestiary A Book ofBeasts (New York G. P. Putnam's, 1960), pp. 115-116.

Letter 9 To C Lyell

I cannot tell you how much I enjoyed my Maer visit,--I felt in anticipation my future tranquil life how I do hope you may be as happy as I know I shall be but it frightens me, as often as I think of what a family you have been one of. I was thinking this morning how it came, that I, who am fond of talking and am scarcely ever out of spirits, should so entirely rest my notions of happiness on quietness, and a good deal of solitude but I believe the explanation is very simple and I mention it because it will give you hopes, that I shall gradually grow less of a brute, it is that during the five years of my voyage (and indeed I may add these two last) which from the active manner in which they have been passed, may be said to be the commencement of my real life, the whole of my pleasure was derived from what passed in my mind, while admiring views by myself, travelling across the wild deserts or glorious forests or pacing the deck of the poor little Beagle at night. Excuse this much...

The Middle Ages

The Greek clinical-empirical tradition survived in the early Middle Ages among Arab Muslims and European Christians, although it later succumbed to religious intolerance. In Europe, monk-physicians, like Cassiodorus (490-585), upheld humane treatment and emphasized the Hippocratic empirical tradition. By the twelfth century, that tradition had given way to a more theological-non-empirical bent. Thus, Roger Bacon, arguing that empirical observation was required for knowledge and that mental illnesses had natural aetiologies, suffered the censure of the church and the condemnation of his colleagues at Oxford University. From the fourteenth century onwards, the Inquisition silenced empiricism as heresy, by intimidating or even killing its advocates.

Verrucous carcinoma

Vocal Cord Keratosis Histopathology

A large lesion with abundant keratosis arranged in church-spire configuration. There is a broad, pushing border of infiltration. Fig. 3.13 Verrucous carcinoma. A large lesion with abundant keratosis arranged in church-spire configuration. There is a broad, pushing border of infiltration.

Owlman

Behavior Can rise vertically into the air. Distribution Mawnan, Cornwall. Significant sightings Two children, June and Vicky Melling, were the first to report the Owl-man, which they saw on April 17, 1976, hovering above the Mawnan church tower. The final sighting occurred on August 2, 1978, when three French girls saw a big, furry bird with a gaping mouth and big eyes by the Mawnan church. Possible explanations

Phoenix

Anthill, spreading its wings, and allowing ants to swarm through its feathers. Angry ants emit formic acid, which may help repel parasites inhabiting a bird's feathers. However, some birds also engage in similar behavior with the smoke from burning leaves, cigarettes, or matches. Maurice Burton suggested that ancient observations of this peculiar behavior may have given rise to the legend of a bird reborn in fire. It is even possible that the priests of Heliopolis encouraged smoke-related anting in temple birds as part of their solar rituals. Sources Herodotus, The Histories, ed. John Marincola (New York Penguin, 1996), p. 112 (ii. 73) Ovid, The Metamorphoses, trans. Horace Gregory (New York Viking, 1958), pp. 425426 (XV. 391-407) Statius, Slvae (New York Oxford University Press, 1990) (II. 4.36) Pliny, Natural History, trans. Harris Rackham (Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1938- 1963), pp. 293-295 (X. 2) Tacitus, The Annals ofTacitus, trans. Alfred John Church and William...

Empathy

Chim Panzee

An interesting older literature by experimental psychologists addresses empathy (reviewed by Preston and de Waal 2002a,b). In a paper provocatively entitled Emotional reactions of rats to the pain of others, Church (1959) established that rats that had learned to press a lever to obtain food would stop doing so if their response was paired with the delivery of an electric shock to a neighboring rat. Even though this inhibition habituated rapidly, it suggested something aversive about the pain reactions of others. Perhaps such reactions arouse negative emotions in those who see and hear them. In the same year as Church's rat study, Miller et al. (1959) published the first of a series of pioneering papers on the transmission of affect in rhesus macaques. They found that monkeys react with avoidance to pictures of conspecifics in a fearful pose, and that this reaction is stronger than that towards a negatively conditioned stimulus. This discovery was astonishing, suggesting that seeing...