As objective lesions of the pancreatic duct for the PanIN classification is a caliber pancreatic duct which is undetectable radiographically, it is basically impossible to find PanIN lesions preoperatively. The PanIN classification cannot be used for radiographically detectable ductal lesions which are routinely diagnosed and treated because PanIN lesions are only incidentally found away from the tumor of resected pancreata with PC. A classification system for PanIN developed in 1999 was recently revised at a meeting of international experts on PC precursors [7, 8]. In the new PanIN classification, PanIN lesions are diagnosed not by location of ductal lesions (whether peripheral or central ducts) but by the size of the duct, i.e. ductile conditions for PanIN lesions require that lesions are usually invisible lesions without obvious changes such as radiograph-ical duct stenosis, interruption, or secondary dilation of the duct .
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