Pancreatic fibrosis is a disorder associated with loss of pancreatic architecture and progression of fibrosis caused by alcoholism, malnutrition, metabolic disorders, hereditary diseases such as cystic fibrosis, obstruction of pancreatic ducts, autoimmune diseases, and idiopathic disorders such as retroperitoneal fibrosis. It was recentlyproposed that chronic pancreatitis and fibrosis may be caused by many factors, according to the TIGAR-O theory , short for: Toxic and metabolic pathway, Idiopathic pathway, Genetic pathway, Autoimmune pathway, Recurrent and severe acute pancreatitis pathway, and Obstructive pathway. Other hypotheses, such as the primary duct hypothesis and sentinel acute pancreatitis event (SAPE) hypothesis, have also been developed. Many pathways or hypotheses of pancreatic inflammation or fibrogene-sis support the concepts of multifaceted regulation of chronic pancreatitis and fibrosis.
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