Chronic Fatigue Causes and Treatment

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Solution

CFS is a program that uses step by step guide to help everyone who is suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome get permanent treatment. Through this program, you will learn the type of diets you should observe every time and also discover what doctors avoid telling you about the harmful side effects of the medication they prescribe to you. The author of this program goes by the name of Jennifer Nolan who took over five years to discover all the remedies used in this program. All the techniques used in this program have undergone thorough testing and results proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. All the remedies you get in this program are all-natural remedies which are 100% free from any chemicals. The program will help you live a healthy lifestyle and at the same time treat the CFS permanently. Referring to the many benefits associated with this program, I highly recommend it to anybody who has not yet joined the program. You should always remember that maintain good health status guarantee that even your future generations will lead healthy lives. Read more...

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Solution Summary

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Get Your Health Back

This product was designed by the creator who has been struggling with the issue ofChronic Fatigue andFibromyalgia for years, he has dedicated his research to find a way to reverse his symptoms and created a 700-page book that has seven parts, each for a specific purpose. You will be getting a lot of information in this book that is so easy to read, it will include ways you can change your diet to improve it greatly and ways you can achieve complete mental health. Not only that, but the book also has many other parts dedicated to your health such as physical activity and working out. The book will showcase the fruits of the research that the creator of this product has reaped. He will help you get a product that is going to work like magic, you can finally say goodbye to the symptoms ofChronic Fatigue andFibromyalgia through this book. The strategy that is included in this book will also include scientific explanations for some of the advice that is in this ebook form. You can get this easy to follow step by step formula to reverse your symptoms as soon as you make a purchase, you will get the books along with a lot of bonuses that all help in making you feel better. Read more...

Get Your Health Back Summary

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Official Website: getyourhealthback.online
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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterized by profound fatigue that is not alleviated by sleep, and a myriad of other symptoms including impairment of memory and concentration, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes. There is no single cause of the illness and a physician should be consulted to explore all possibilities. Causes may be a viral infection, adrenal gland dysfunction, chemical sensitivity, autonomic nervous system disorder, or food allergy.

Bidirectional Communication and Sleep

Also, sleep-deprived humans immunized against infection with influenza virus had lower virus-specific antibody titers compared to non-sleep-deprived individuals (Spiegel, Sheridan, and Van Cauter 2002). Despite the evidence that sleep loss has effects on immune function and secretion of cytokines, the significance of these changes on the immune response is not known (Irwin 2002). Finally, illnesses such as chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia and depression show NREM sleep disruption (Moldofsky 1993). Primary sleep disorders are also associated with alterations in immune competence (Sakami et al. 2002). Thus, decreases in the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells and reduced NK cell responses have been associated with chronic insomnia (Savard, Laroche, Simard, Ivers, and Morin 2003).

Influence of products of the immune system on the central nervous system

The immune system affects brain and behaviour, especially via the effects of immune cytokines on the central nervous system.(42) Although cytokines are relatively large molecules, some, particularly IL-1, can cross the blood-brain barrier via active transport. IL-1 is also produced in the brain by both microglia, which are macrophages resident in the central nervous system, and astrocytes. Peripheral IL-1 can affect the brain, including its production of cytokines, via stimulation of the vagus afferent fibres. There are cytokine receptors in the brain, including those for IL-1, IL-8, and interferon, on both glial cells and neurones. Cytokines play a role in the development and regeneration of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Brain cytokines play a role in immune effector mechanisms as regulated by the brain, including a role in brain infection and inflammation. Cytokines are relevant to the progression of multiple sclerosis, gliomas, HIV-associated dementia, brain injury, and...

The Effects of Potassium Channel Blockers on Fatigue

Fatigue is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with MS (Murray, 1985 Krupp et al., 1988). It has little relationship to neurological impairment and has been one of the most difficult MS symptoms to document objectively. A number of scoring methodologies have been developed for quantifying subjective fatigue for pharmaceutical trials (Murray, 1985 Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Research Group, 1987 Cohen and Fisher, 1989). Krupp and co-workers (1989) introduced the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), which was designed to measure MS fatigue in patients with MS and has been validated in a number of clinical trials. Motor fatigue has been quantitated in patients with MS by monitoring motor power output using prolonged or repetitive isometric contractions (Schwid et al., 1999). Mental fatigue has been quantitated by measuring neuropsychological performance before and after mentally taxing activities (Schwid et al., 2002). One study of central motor conduction suggested that...

Central Nervous System

Many over-the-counter preparations are aimed at relieving fatigue through CNS stimulation. Such compounds are often referred to as wake-up tablets, but these methylxanthine-containing products do little to offset physical fatigue, so they place individuals using them at risk for accidental injuries.

Classification of unexplained symptoms

The medical view of descriptive syndromes, some of which are of considerable antiquity. Many incorporate assumptions about aetiology but there is little evidence for their validity there are striking cross-cultural differences. An increasing number of syndromes have been introduced by lay groups to describe their own predicaments and the apparent lack of success of conventional medicine. A small, but increasing, number of syndromes have now received operational diagnostic criteria which have proved valuable in clinical understanding and in planning treatment, for example the criteria for chronic fatigue ( Chapter.5.2.7).

Additional patient characteristics

The choice of diagnosis should be pragmatic there is little merit in giving a diagnosis of CFS if the patient's symptoms are clearly those of depression or anxiety, and they are accepting of this diagnosis. In other cases, a diagnosis of CFS may be the most appropriate it offers the patient a coherent label for their symptoms and will therefore lessen the risk that they will embark on a fruitless search for a 'better' explanation. The label CFS also avoids the misleading connotations of 'pseudodisease' labels such as chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection or myalgic encephalomyelitis. Above all, it is most important that neither the physician nor the patient stops at this diagnosis, but goes on to explain what it does and does not mean. (37>

Conclusions and future directions

Chronic fatigue syndrome is best regarded as a descriptive term for a type of clinical presentation. The group of patients it defines is almost certainly aetiologically heterogeneous and needs to be subclassified. While psychiatric diagnosis provides one approach to subclassification, the current diagnostic systems have significant limitations, and a multidimensional description of the patient's characteristics may be more clinically useful. The illness defined by the term chronic fatigue syndrome is important because it represents potentially treatable disability and suffering. It is also important because the clinical problems it gives rise to demand that we address shortcomings in our present approach to medically unexplained illness. Whatever is ultimately discovered about the causes of CFS, the attention it is receiving offers a golden opportunity to reappraise our understanding and classification of human illness and to re-examine our current organization of medical care.

Epidemiology Of Fatigue

Fatigue is a common problem that is pathological or normal, depending on circumstances. It is a common problem in primary care.26-30 In a community study in Norway, Loge et al.31 found that substantial fatigue lasting six months or more affected 11.4 of the population, aged 19 to 80. Other studies have found fatigue is the presenting complaint in 4 to 9 of primary care office visits.27-29 In one study,32 a sense of chronic fatigue was reported as a major problem by 25 of consecutive patients seen in a primary care clinic, with 75 of these patients suffering with it for at least one year. Fatigue is costly in terms of direct health care expenditures and indirect costs such as lost employment.26 For instance, fatigue was estimated to account for 9.3 of formal health care expenditures in the UK.26

Cited Publications

Schwartz, Conditions with an uncertain relationship to air pollution Sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities, and chronic fatigue syndrome. In P. Witorsch and S.V. Spagnolo, eds., Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1994, pp. 285-300.

High health service users

Some individuals also seem to have a tendency to make catastrophic interpretations about physical symptoms and this may influence frequency of presentation to medical services and recovery from illness. Catastrophizing in pain patients has been associated with disability, and drop-out from pain-management programmes. (49) It has also been associated with higher levels of fatigue and disability in chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Catastrophizing is also seen in 'cardiac invalidism'. Here patients adopt an extremely passive, dependent, and helpless role in the belief that any form of overly vigorous activity will bring on another myocardial infarction. A hypersensitivity to bodily symptoms means that normal sensations may be misconstrued to indicate overexertion or an impending fatal myocardial infarction. This pattern often results in a cycle of inactivity and loss of physical condition which in turn supports these beliefs. Many patients who develop highly negative illness beliefs...

Summary and Conclusions

Inability to sleep, excessive sleepiness, and fatigue are common problems that many, if not all, people experience at some time in their lives. Excessive sleepiness and fatigue, particularly when persistent, reduce the quality of life of affected individuals and also cause significant economic loss in terms of diminished productivity and employment capability. Considerable data support strong interactions between the immune response and vigilance states. Furthermore, infectious and inflammatory diseases and or their therapies are often associated with nonrestorative sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, and fatigue, and many individuals also suffer from chronic fatigue of unknown etiology. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for poor sleep, chronic fatigue, and excessive sleepiness and developing effective interventions for these disabling symptoms could improve the economic welfare and quality of life of many individuals.

Clinical Manifestations Of Chagas Heart Disease

In early cardiac disease, when the cumulative extent of myocardial damage is small (stage IA and IB), ventricular abnormalities are minimal or absent and the ECG is normal. These patients are typically asymptomatic and have a good prognosis. When myocardial damage is more advanced (stage II), areas of abnormal wall motion may be evident and conduction abnormalities usually are present due to lesions within the His-Purkinje system. In such patients, global ventricular function is preserved, but sudden cardiac death or complete atrioventricular block may develop. Nonspecific symptoms such as chronic fatigue, weakness, palpitations, and chest pain133 may be present. Such chest pain is vague and atypical of myocardial ischemia, but it sometimes prompts diagnostic evaluation. When the extent of myocardial damage is severe (stage III), the disease manifests as myocardial dysfunction that may be segmental, typically a ventricular aneurysm, or global, resembling a dilated cardiomyopathy. The...

Improving the mental health skills of the primary care team Improving the skills of general practitioners

Reviewing actual consultations with learners is an important educational method which was shown to change behaviour in medical students, (82) psychiatrists 83' and primary care residents in Charleston, North Carolina.(84) Adding the technique of problem-based interviewing (85> in a group setting(86) improved the accuracy in assessing emotional distress of both GP trainees(87) and experienced GPs,(88) and these changes persist.(89) GP trainers can transmit these skills to trainees.(90) This approach uses real consultations presented in a facilitated peer group with the opportunity for skill rehearsal. (86) An alternative method, which allows skill rehearsal, is to use prepared videos in which actors and GPs actually demonstrate microskills. Videos have been produced on a variety of subjects, such as somatization disorder, alcohol problems, child and adolescent problems, depression in old age, talking treatments in depression, dementia, psychosis, anxiety, and chronic fatigue. Some of...

The Neural Immune System in CFS

If persistent infection is not the cause, another hypothesis is that it is infection triggers abnormal processes in the immune system. A number of papers have reported immune activation in CFS (for review, see Strober (1994)) but it is not clear whether these change are the cause or the result of changes brought about by the CFS such as inactivity, disturbed sleep and chronic stress. Some data do support some underlying immunological problem first, some CFS patients appear to have an antibody against a specific nuclear antigen (Von Mikecz, Konstantinov, Buchwald, Gerace, and Tan 1997) second, patients have a dysregulated 2,5 RNase L antiviral defense pathway (Suhadolnik et al. 1999) and third, treatment with an immune active agent, mismatched RNA, may reduce disability (Strayer et al. 1994) (a study to replicate this outcome has recently been completed). The immune dysregulation hypothesis was further supported by reports from two prominent groups that found evidence for immunological...

Chapter References

Petrie, K., Moss-Morris, R., and Weinman, J. (1995). The impact of catastrophic beliefs on functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39, 31-7. 62. Moss-Morris, R., Petrie, K.J., and Weinman, J. (1996). Functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome do illness perceptions play a regulatory role British Journal of Health Psychology, 1, 15-25.

Types Of Fatigue In Pd

Central and peripheral fatigue have been identified in PD patients.16,18 Although some believe these are distinct types of fatigue, there is evidence that central mechanisms may underlie the accelerated muscle fatigue thought to be corroboration of peripheral fatigue.17,18 Central fatigue is characterized by difficulty in initiating and sustaining mental and physical tasks in the absence of cognitive or motor impairment.18 Mental fatigue has two subdivisions mental lassitude induced either by hypo- or hypervigilance. The former occurs with repetitive and boring tasks. In PD patients, reduced stimulation due to physical dependence and social isolation consequent to the disease may result in a hypovigilant state. Sustained hypervigilance can also cause mental fatigue, for example, when keeping close track of breaking news stories and making complex decisions. Sustained emotional stressors, such as a critical illness in a close relative, may result in emotional fatigue.

The alert state required for the above

A variety of pathologies impair attention. Among these are parietal and frontal lesions (Shallice 1993), schizophrenia (Andreasen et al. 1994), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, one manifestation of which is learning difficulties (Shaywitz et al. 1997). It has been suggested that attention and memory are also co-impaired in chronic fatigue syndrome, and the hypothetical 'central executive' was implicated (Joyce et al. 1996). In real-life, multiple methods could be used to enhance attention, and, good news, some of these methods are clearly devoid of any side effect a comparison of memory for humorous and non-humorous versions of sentences shows that the humorous ones are remembered better, probably because they are associated with increased attention (Schmidt 1994).

Pathogenic Experiential History

. . . the apathy that characterizes an unreactive infant may deprive him of many of the reactions from others which are essential to his biosocial maturation. His unresponsiveness may discourage his parents and other adults from fondling him, talking to him or providing him with new and challenging toys, so that the poverty of his social environment sustains his passivity and social isolation. If such a child develops behavior pathology, he is likely to show an exaggeration or distortion of his own characteristic reactions in the form of retardation, chronic fatigue or desocialization.

Impact And Nature Of Fatigue In Pd

Friedman and Friedman,57 following patients over nine years, found fatigue not only to be a consistent finding over time, but, in addition, the fatigue did not substantially change in severity in most patients, even with treatment and changes in disease severity. PD patients score higher on all dimensions of fatigue as compared with health controls.17 Lou et al.17 reported this, including physical fatigue, general fatigue, reduced motivation, reduced activity, mental fatigue, although mental fatigue was not significantly different between PD patients and control subjects. These results suggest that physical and mental fatigue are independent symptoms that should be evaluated separately. Depression is often associated with the general feelings of tiredness and malaise that are often associated with fatigue,74,75 but the link between depression and fatigue is complex. Lou et al.,17 reporting on a sample of PD patients and healthy controls, found that PD patients on average had higher...

Other somatoform conditions

A number of specific somatic syndromes have been described over the last several decades. These specific syndromes are sometimes defined by the particular somatic symptoms experienced (e.g. fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome) and sometimes by particular beliefs about aetiology (e.g. multiple chemical sensitivity, systemic candidiasis, electrical allergy). In every case, controversy persists about whether the somatic symptoms should be considered 'medically unexplained' (that is to say a somatoform disorder). Community surveys suggest that non-specific symptoms (such as fatigue or diffuse musculoskeletal pain) are common, but that the prevalence of strictly defined syndromes (such as fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome) varies considerably with the criteria applied 4 d546 aDd 47> Most of these syndromes appear more often in women than in men.(4 ,49) Both community(4 l95.0) and primary care surveys 1.) have found several of these syndromes to be...

Children with psychiatric disorder

Other psychiatric disorders in which different types of sleep disturbance is reported to be prominent are autism (including circadian sleep rhythm disorders), Asperger's syndrome (hypersomnia), tic disorders including Tourette's syndrome (sleeplessness and parasomnias), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (poor-quality sleep). Sleep complaints are also prominent in the chronic fatigue syndrome. As mentioned earlier, disruption by frequent awakenings (not obviously attributable to daytime inactivity) has been described in teenagers with this condition (22) suggesting that daytime symptoms might be at least partly attributable to poor sleep quality. Occasionally, Munchausen's syndrome by proxy comes to light in the form of complaints of a sleep disturbance. The sleep of conduct-disordered children has received little attention but preliminary reports are in keeping with the expectation that their sleep is disturbed because of their adverse or disorganized home and social circumstances and...

Case

A 34-year-old divorced woman with two children presented with a 3-month history of reduced mobility and was admitted via a casualty department to a general medical unit. The examination findings were those of a moderate spastic paraparesis. Further history from the patient revealed that, 6 years earlier, she had begun complaining of tiredness. She was seen by a number of hospital specialists and a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome was made. Two years after the onset of these symptoms, she had a 2-week episode of lower limb weakness when she was effectively housebound. This recovered spontaneously. Subsequently, she complained of muscle aches and pains, and further assessment by a hospital specialist led to revision of the diagnosis to fibromyalgia. She experienced bladder problems, and she recalled a spell during which she would bend her neck and experience tingling in both hands. Her marriage broke up, and she had increasing difficulty coping with her young children.

NK Cells and Cancer

Natural killer (NK) cells are large, specialized, non-T, non-B lymphocytes. NK cells were discovered in the mid-1970s and constitute up to 15 percent of the total lymphocyte population in healthy subjects. They are capable of killing a broad range of human solid tumor, leukemic, and virus-infected cells. Depressed NK cell activity and depressed NK cell populations appear to be associated with the development and progression of cancer, as well as AIDS, chronic fatigue syndrome, psychiatric depression, various immunodeficiency syndromes, and certain autoimmune diseases.

Herbal Medicines

Has been vindicated by recent developments. The Daily Mail (28 September 1996) carried a headline 'Shire says it with snowdrops'. 'Flower power could soon be helping sufferers of chronic fatigue syndrome. Shire Pharmaceuticals is testing galanthamine, a compound found in daffodils and snowdrops, on victims of yuppie flu. The drug already has improved the mental performance of Alzheimer's patients.'

Daily activities

In addition to handing out the Coping with Depression manual early in therapy, the therapist should also ask the client to complete an activities schedule for at least the first few weeks of therapy. A reduction in usual activities can be quickly identified from the completed schedule. Exploration should then be made of what normal activities have been dropped and why this has occurred. For example, some depressed people believe that they would be a burden on other people and that they would spoil other people's fun others think that there is no point in trying because they would not enjoy any of their former activities. Using this information, the therapist can identify a range of graded tasks that starts with the easiest one that the person is both most likely to succeed at and perhaps even enjoy. In cases where the person has become extremely inactive, one of the early aims of therapy should be to help the individual increase his or her activity levels. In very extreme cases, the...

Pathophysiology

The prominent fatigue of Addison's disease has led to several researchers suggesting the hypothesis that adrenal function is also impaired in patients with CFS. In support of this suggestion there is some evidence that patients with chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia have both low levels of cortisol and an abnormal adrenal response to stress and exertion. (19> These findings require replication. If they prove to be robust, they may not only suggest a mechanism of symptom production in CFS but also represent a definite biological difference between CFS and depressive disorders, in which cortisol levels are typically elevated.

Psychopathology

Patients with the aforementioned personality type may be more susceptible to those social pressures that lead to chronic fatigue, by being more fearful of the social stigma attached to a 'psychiatric' explanation for their distress. Another potentially important social factor is the availability of misleading information about the illness Both self-help books and the media have tended to emphasize 'medical' explanations for the symptoms of CFS at the expense of more psychiatric or psychological conceptualizations. It has also been suggested that CFS may serve a culturally defined function of social communication, allowing a socially acceptable and hence 'non-psychiatric' expression of distress and protest about intolerable occupational and personal pressures. Much the same has been said of neurasthenia in the People's Republic of China (see Chapte 5.2.J 0).

Sleep apnoea

Apnoea is defined as the complete cessation of respiratory airflow for 10 or more seconds. (35> Apnoea can occur during any sleep stage, but is particularly likely to occur during the period of rapid eye movement sleep. It is important to remember that normal people have apnoeic episodes during sleep. When apnoeic events are frequent and prolonged, they lead to chronically disrupted sleep and excessive daytime somnolence. This defines the condition known as sleep apnoea. When severe, sleep apnoea can be complicated by hypoxia, arrhythmias, and heart failure. Sleep apnoea can be central, obstructive, or a mixture of the two. Central sleep apnoea is caused by an abnormal central drive to the respiratory muscles. Congestive heart failure is the most common cause, followed by neurological disorders involving the brainstem and respiratory centres. Obstructive sleep apnoea is more common it is estimated that 4 per cent of middle-aged men are affected. Obesity is a major risk factor, but...

Heme Oxygenase

Acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC), is a compound of great interest for its wide clinical application in various neurological disorders it may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, diabetic neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, cognitive impairment of alcoholism and aging (12,13). It is promoted as a nutritional agent producing cognitive benefits for middle-aged and elderly people, is involved in cellular energy production and in maintenance and repair processes in neurons (3,117,120,130). In addition to its principal function, acetylcarnitine, and the carnitine system, buffer potentially toxic acyl-CoA metabolites and modulates the ratio of acyl-CoA CoA (13,130). The latter regulates the activity of many mitochon-drial enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle, gluconeogenesis, the urea cycle and fatty oxidation (130). Modifications in cardiolipin composition are recognized to accompany functional...

Minerals

Along with calcium, magnesium is found in bones and is important in the conduction of electrical impulses of the muscles and nerves. Magnesium, like calcium, is a relaxant yet either one in excess causes a malfunction of the nervous system. Keeping both minerals in balance is important. Most magnesium is found in the cell where it activates the enzymes necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. It is involved in insulin secretion and function. Magnesium has been shown to reduce hyperactivity in children who had low magnesium levels. It may improve vision in glaucoma patients, lower blood pressure, and may be a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome. The mineral is refined out of many foods and amounts are lost during cooking of foods.

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