By the way, all of the products commute, so the order is not important: 2Iy Sy — 2Sy Iy . If only one of the operators in a product is observable, it is always written first: 2SXlz.

The rotation matrices corresponding to pulses are 4 x 4 matrices of the following form:

This matrix corresponds to pulses that only affect the I spins (1H). Note that the i sin (©/2) term appears for all of the I (1H) transitions and the cos (©/2) term appears for all of the diagonal elements. The rotation matrix for S (13C) pulses has the i sin (©/2) terms in matrix elements corresponding to the S (13C) transitions:

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