The chemical denaturing of enzymes is caused by very high or very low pH. H+ ions that are released from acids and accepted by bases interfere with hydrogen bonding. If we change the pH of the environment of unwanted microorganisms, we can control their growth by denaturing their proteins. An example is vinegar, which is acetic acid; it has a pH of 3.0. Vinegar acts as a preservative in " pickling" vegetables. Ammonia has a pH of 11. Ammonia is a base, and for this reason we use ammonia as a cleaner and disinfectant.

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