Mycobacteria require oxygen (aerobic) and are acid-fast organisms that remain red while most are blue. Large amounts of lipids in the Mycobacteria's cell envelope, resists basic dyes. Myco, which means "fungus-like" is how this organism got its name.

• Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis.

• Mycobacterium leprae. Mycobacterium leprae, also known as M. leprae, causes Hansen's disease (leprosy).

• Mycobacterium bovis. Mycobacterium bovis, also known as M. bovis, causes tuberculosis in cattle and can be transmitted to humans.

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