R banding in chromosome visualization, 160, 160f R factors plasmids as, 23, 23b R loop mapping history of, 31b Radionuclides safety and, 418-419, 419t, 420f Ramp defined, 130 Random amplified polymorphic DNA assay in molecular epidemiology, 286-287, 287f Random coils in amino acid structure, 52 Random priming in DNA probe labeling, 106 Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA in quantitative polymerase chain reaction, 141-142, 142f Rapid plasma reagin in Treponema pallidum detection, 278 Rapid polymerase chain reaction thermal cycling in, 130

Reagent blank in polymerase chain reaction, 131-132 in quality assurance, 267 Reagents. See also specific reagents quality assurance in, 417f-420f, 417-420, 419t

REAL classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 333b Real-time polymerase chain reaction, 137b-139b,137-141,138f-142f thermal cycling in, 130 Rearranged During Transfection (RET) proto-

oncogene, 343 recBC nuclease in DNA metabolism, 15 Receptor tyrosine kinases in molecular oncology, 335f, 363-365 Recessive diseases gene mutation nomenclature in, 194 Recipient loci in bone marrow transplantation, 246, 246f Reciprocal translocations detection of karyotyping in, 162-163, 164f Recognition sites DNA defined, 7b restriction enzyme binding to, 13b, 95 Recombinant DNA technology defined, 18

plasmids in, 23-24, 24b Recombination in asexual reproduction, 18-22, 19f-22f, 20b, 22b defined, 17

historical highlights of, 17b, 20b in sexually reproducing organisms, 17b, 17-18, 19f-18f Recombination activating genes, 348b Red blood cells in DNA isolation, 66 Redundant tilting in high-density oligonucleotide arrays, 184 Refrigerators maintenance of, 413-414, 414f Regulatory transcription

RNA, 31 Release factors in protein synthesis, 61 Repair endonucleases in DNA metabolism, 12b Repair polymerases in DNA replication, 11b Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence,

288, 289f-290f Replication errors in microsatellite instability, 344-345, 345f

Replication fork

DNA, 8, 9f Replisome in DNA replication, 9b Reporting of test results quality assurance in, 421, 422f, 423 Repressor in transcription regulation, 39, 40f Reproducibility in genotype test evaluation, 290 Reptation in electrophoresis, 82 Resequencing DNA, 222

in gene sequencing test results, 421 Resistance factor episomal nature of, 23 Resistance transfer factors plasmids as, 23, 23b Resolution in HLA nomenclature, 383 Respiratory syncytial virus detection of, 294t Respiratory tract pathogens. See also specific pathogens detection and identification of, 270-276,

271t overview of, 270 Restriction enzymes in DNA metabolism, 12b-14b, 12-14, 13f endonucleases as, 84 mapping of, 95f-96f, 95-96, 226-228 DNA, 95f-96f, 95-96, 226-228 plasmid, 96, 96f nomenclature and classification of, 13 in Southern blot, 97, 98f Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in bone marrow graft transplantation,

246 defined, 96

in enzyme mapping, 96, 226-227 in gene mutation detection, 189-190, 190f, 226

genetic mapping with, 228-229, 229b human identification with, 229-230,

230b-231b, 230f-231f inheritance patterns of, 227-229, 228f-229f in molecular epidemiology, 286 overview of typing with, 226-228,

227f-228f parentage testing with, 229, 229f polymerase chain reaction, 189-190, 190f probes in, 230, 231b

Standard Reference Material DNA Profiling Standard, 228

Restriction map enzyme, 95-96, 96f, 226-227 of germline immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, 351f Restriction modification defined, 5b RET proto-oncogene, 343 Retroviruses reverse transcription in, 28b Reverse dot blot in genomic array technology, 113 Reverse dot blot techniques allele-specific oligomer hybridization as, 179-180

Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, 135-136 in Ewing's sarcoma, 340, 340f in HIV viral load detection, 296, 296t

Reverse transcription complementary DNA version of messenger

RNA by, 31b in retroviruses, 28b, 292 RFLP. See Restriction fragment length polymorphisms Rhabdomyosarcoma translocations in, 340-341 Ribonucleases in RNA metabolism, 37 used in laboratory procedures, 38t Ribonucleic acid. See RNA Ribose in RNA structure, 28 Ribosomal binding site in protein translation, 58, 60f Ribosomal RNA isolation of, 72

structure and function of, 30, 30b, 30f Ribosomes defined, 57

in protein translation, 57-60, 59f-60f Ring chromosomes karyotyping in detection of, 165, 165f RNA, 27-44 analysis of electrophoresis in, 75-76, 76f, 81-92.

See also Electrophoresis fluorometry in, 78 probes in, 103-104, 104b, 106 solution hybridization in, 117, 117f spectrophotometry in, 77 transcription-based amplification in, 143-144 classification of, 28, 30 crystallographic study of synthesis of, 38b defined, 28 degradation of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and, 136 as DNA precursor, 28b heteronuclear, 32 isolation of, 72-75

extraction of total RNA in, 72-74,

73f-74f, 74t of messenger RNA, 74-75, 75f RNases and, 72, 72b of total RNA, 72 laboratory precautions in handling,

406-407, 407f messenger, 30-31. See also Messenger

RNA micro, 35-36 overview of, 28 polymerases of eukaryotic, 37, 37b, 37t prokaryotic, 36f, 36-37 RNA-dependent, 37 in transcription, 28-29, 29f preribosomal, 30 ribosomal, 30, 30b, 30f isolation of, 72 small interfering, 34, 34b small intermediate, 34 small modulatory, 36 small nuclear, 32b, 34, 34t small nucleolar, 36 small temporal, 36

specimen storage requirements for, 407,

408t-409t, 409 stabilization of specimen collection tubes and, 406 structure of, 28 tiny noncoding, 36 transcription in, 28-29, 29f transfer, 34-35, 35b-36b, 35f uracil in, 28, 28f RNA chaperones, 38b RNA induced silencing complex in RNA interference, 44 RNA integrity control in translocation detection, 360 RNA interference, 34, 34b, 44 laboratory uses of, 44b potential clinical uses of, 44 RNA ligase functions of, 14b RNA Tie Club, 55b RNA viruses genomes of, 292t transcription-based amplification in detection of, 143

RNase in RNA isolation, 72, 72b RNase H

in DNA replication, 9b RNase protection in solution hybridization, 117 Robertsonian translocations karyotyping in detection of, 163, 164f Roche MagnaPure system in solid-phase DNA isolation, 70 Rotating gel electrophoresis, 83, 83f Rotavirus detection of, 294t Rubella virus detection of, 294t

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