Peptide nucleic acid and locked nucleic acid probes (Fig. 6-9 and 6-10) can be synthesized using chemical methods.5-8 These modified nucleic acids have the advantage of being resistant to nucleases that would degrade DNA and RNA by breaking the phosphodiester backbone. Further, the negative charge of the phosphodiester backbones of DNA and RNA counteract hydrogen bonding between the bases of the probe and target sequences. Structures such as PNA that do not have a negative charge hybridize more efficiently.
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