Lateral plain films demonstrating anterior and posterior osteophytes. (A) At C4 through C6 the intervertebral spaces are decreased with reversal of the cervical lordosis. (B) In lateral plain films of the lumbar spine narrowed intervertebral spaces are noted with small anterior and posterior osteophytes. Note the extensively calcified abdominal aorta (star).

facet hypertrophy, and segmental instability (Figures 4-3A and 4-3B). Degenerative instability may seem absent or mild on static plain films. Flexion and extension films, however, may reveal the degree of instability and provide an explanation for the clinical symptoms (Figures 4-4A and 4-4B). In the cervical region there may be straightening of the

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