Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

The major clinical/pathological complication of cervical spondylosis is cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Pathophysiology

Degenerative changes in the vertebral bodies, discs, and ligaments lead to hypertrophy, calcification, and ossification, resulting in encroachment on the space that separates these structures from the cord (Figures 4-1A and 4-1B). As the space left for the spinal cord is

Foramen Transversarium

Foramen Transversarium

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