may enlarge neural foraminae as well. The cysts may compress the spinal cord and lead to thinning and atrophy of this structure.

Clinical Presentation

As with perineural cysts, most patients with arachnoid cysts remain asymptomatic. If the cysts are large and affect the vertebrae the patients may present with fluctuating back pain and radicular pain that may be severe and is worse during straining or coughing. Spinal cord compression results in myelopathic symptoms: gait dysfunction, paraparesis, and sphincter involvement. In the latter cases the patients should be operated on promptly as undue delay may lead to compromised function.

Imaging Studies

The cyst may appear as a solitary, oval structure. At times, multiple cysts may be present. The density and signal characteristics of these cysts on CT and MRI studies are similar to those of perineural cysts.


Complete excision of the cyst is the definitive treatment. Bibliography

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The term spondyloarthropathy refers to a cluster of interrelated seronegative chronic inflammatory diseases that affect the spine and the peripheral joints. Other systems, such as the ocular, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and cutaneous systems, are affected as well.

The point of attachment of ligaments and tendons to bone is known as the enthesis. In the spondyloarthropathies, structural changes occur throughout the skeleton, including the spine at the enthesis sites. Initially, bone resorption takes place, and subsequently excessive bone formation occurs. These structural changes at the enthesis sites have been called enthesopathy.

Many patients with spondyloarthropathy have a positive HLA-B27. The rheumatoid factor, however, remains negative in these diseases. Seronegative spondyloarthropathy is the term that is applied to this class of disorders, which includes ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthropathy, Reiter's disease, inflammatory bowel arthropathy, and Behcet's disease.

Back Pain Revealed

Back Pain Revealed

Tired Having Back Pains All The Time, But You Choose To Ignore It? Every year millions of people see their lives and favorite activities limited by back pain. They forego activities they once loved because of it and in some cases may not even be able to perform their job as well as they once could due to back pain.

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