1. Stiegler P, Kasten M, Giordano A. The RB family of cell cycle regulatory factors. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1998; 30-31: 30-36.

2. Paggi MG, Giordano A. Who is the boss in the retinoblastoma family? The point of view of Rb2/p130, the little brother. Cancer Res 2001; 61(12): 4651-4654.

3. Carnero A, Hannon GJ. The INK4 family of CDK inhibitors. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1998; 227: 43-55.

4. Hengst L, Reed SI. Inhibitors of the Cip/Kip family. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1998; 227: 25-41.

5. Sherr CJ, Roberts JM. CDK inhibitors: positive and negative regulators of G1-phase progression. Genes Dev 1999; 13(12): 1501-1512.

6. Lundberg AS, Weinberg RA. Control of the cell cycle and apoptosis. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35(4): 531-539.

7. Dulic V, Lees E, Reed SI. Association of human cyclin E with a periodic G1-S phase protein kinase. Science 1992; 257(5078): 1958-1961.

8. Koff A, Giordano A, Desai D, et al. Formation and activation of a cyclin E-cdk2 complex during the G1 phase of the human cell cycle. Science 1992; 257(5077): 1689-1694.

9. Ekholm SV, Zickert P, Reed SI, et al. Accumulation of cyclin E is not a prerequisite for passage through the restriction point. Mol Cell Biol 2001; 21(9): 3256-3265.

10. Sherr CJ, Roberts JM. Inhibitors of mammalian G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Genes Dev 1995; 9(10): 1149-1163.

11. Wolowiec D, Mekki Y, Ffrench P, et al. Differential expression of cell proliferation regulatory proteins in B- and T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemias. Br J Haematol 1996; 95(3): 518-523.

12. Yasui W, Akama Y, Kuniyasu H, et al. Expression of cyclin E in human gastric adenomas and adenocarcinomas: correlation with proliferative activity and p53 status. J Exp Ther Oncol 1996; 1(2): 88-94.

13. Iida H, Towatari M, Tanimoto M, et al. Overexpression of cyclin E in acute myelogenous leukemia. Blood 1997; 90(9): 3707-3713.

14. Molendini L, Benassi MS, Magagnoli G, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclin expression in human osteosarcoma. Int J Oncol 1998; 12(5): 1007-1011.

15. Dong Y, Sui L, Tai Y, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclin E overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6(11): 4253-4258.

16. Fukuse T, Hirata T, Naiki H, et al. Prognostic significance of cyclin E overexpression in resected non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2000; 60(2): 242-244.

17. Erlanson M, Landberg G. Prognostic implications of p27 and cyclin E protein contents in malignant lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma 2001; 40(5-6): 461-470.

18. Muller-Tidow C, Metzger R, Kugler K, et al. Cyclin E is the only cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated cyclin that predicts metastasis and survival in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 2001; 61(2): 647-653.

19. Schraml P, Bucher C, Bissig H, et al. Cyclin E overexpression and amplification in human tumours. J Pathol 2003; 200(3): 375-382.

20. Tissier F, Louvel A, Grabar S, et al. Cyclin E correlates with malignancy and adverse prognosis in adrenocortical tumors. Eur J Endocrinol 2004; 150(6): 809-817.

21. Ortega S, Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Cyclin D-dependent kinases, INK4 inhibitors and cancer. Biochim BiophysActa 2002; 1602(1): 73-87.

22. Lammie GA, Peters G. Chromosome 11q13 abnormalities in human cancer. Cancer Cells 1991; 3(11): 413-420.

23. Reissmann PT, Koga H, Figlin RA, Holmes EC, Slamon DJ. Amplification and overexpression of the cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor genes in non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer Study Group. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1999; 125(2): 61-70.

24. Rodrigo JP, Garcia LA, Ramos S, Lazo PS, Suarez C. EMS1 gene amplification correlates with poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6(8): 3177-3182.

25. Cheung TH, Yu MM, Lo KW, Yim SF, Chung TK, Wong YF. Alteration of cyclin D1 and CDK4 gene in carcinoma of uterine cervix. Cancer Lett 2001; 166(2): 199-206.

26. Fujii M, Ishiguro R, Yamashita T, Tashiro M. Cyclin D1 amplification correlates with early recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Cancer Lett 2001; 172(2): 187-192.

27. Vielba R, Bilbao J, Ispizua A, et al. p53 and cyclin D1 as prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Laryngoscope 2003; 113(1): 167-172.

28. Lammie GA, Fantl V, Smith R, et al. D11S287, a putative oncogene on chromosome 11q13, is amplified and expressed in squamous cell and mammary carcinomas and linked to BCL-1. Oncogene 1991; 6(3): 439-444.

29. Buckley MF, Sweeny KJ, Hamilton JA, et al. Expression and amplification of cyclin genes in human breast cancer. Oncogene 1993; 8(8): 2127-2133.

30. Dickson C, Fantl V, Gillett C, et al. Amplification of chromosome band 11q13 and a role for cyclin D1 in human breast cancer. Cancer Lett 1995; 90(1): 43-50.

31. Bartkova J, Lukas J, Muller H, Lutzhoft D, Strauss M, Bartek J. Cyclin D1 protein expression and function in human breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1994; 57(3): 353-361.

32. Bartkova J, Lukas J, Strauss M, Bartek J. Cyclin D1 oncoprotein aberrantly accumulates in malignancies of diverse histogenesis. Oncogene 1995; 10(4): 775-778.

33. Gillett C, Fantl V, Smith R, et al. Amplification and overexpression of cyclin D1 in breast cancer detected by immunohistochemical staining. Cancer Res 1994; 54(7): 1812-1827.

34. McIntosh GG, Anderson JJ, Milton I, et al. Determination of the prognostic value of cyclin D1 overexpression in breast cancer. Oncogene 1995; 11(5): 885-891.

35. Gillett C, Smith P, Gregory W, et al. Cyclin D1 and prognosis in human breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1996; 69(2): 92-99.

36. Weinstat-Saslow D, Merino MJ, Manrow RE, et al. Overexpression of cyclin D mRNA distinguishes invasive and in situ breast carcinomas from non-malignant lesions. Nat Med 1995; 1(12): 1257-1260.

37. Delmer A, Ajchenbaum-Cvmbalista F, Tang R, et al. Over-expression of cyclin D1 in chronic B-cell malignancies with abnormality of chromosome 11q13. Br J Haematol 1995; 89(4): 798-804.

38. Motokura T, Arnold A. Cyclin D and oncogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev 1993; 3(1): 5-10.

39. Buschges R, Weber RG, Actor B, Lichter P, Collins VP, Reifenberger G. Amplification and expression of cyclin D genes (CCND1, CCND2 and CCND3) in human malignant gliomas. Brain Pathol 1999; 9(3): 435-442; discussion 432-433.

40. Ito Y, Takeda T, Wakasa K, Tsujimoto M, Matsuura N. Expression and possible role of cyclin D3 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Anticancer Res 2001; 21(2A): 1043-1048.

41. Shaughnessy J Jr, Gabrea A, Qi Y, et al. Cyclin D3 at 6p21 is dysregulated by recurrent chromosomal translocations to immunoglobulin loci in multiple myeloma. Blood 2001; 98(1): 217-223.

42. Filipits M, Jaeger U, Pohl G, et al. Cyclin D3 is a predictive and prognostic factor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8(3): 729-733.

43. Hedberg Y, Davoodi E, Ljungberg B, Roos G, Landberg G. Cyclin E and p27 protein content in human renal cell carcinoma: clinical outcome and associations with cyclin D. Int J Cancer 2002; 102(6): 601-607.

44. An HX, Beckmann MW, Reifenberger G, Bender HG, Neideracher D. Gene amplification and overexpression of CDK4 in sporadic breast carcinomas is associated with high tumor cell proliferation. Am J Pathol 1999; 154(1): 113-118.

45. Khatib ZA, Matsushime H, Valentine M, Shapiro DN, Sherr CJ, Look AT. Coamplification of the CDK4 gene with MDM2 and GLI in human sarcomas. Cancer Res 1993; 53(22): 5535-5541.

46. Schmidt EE, Ichimura K, Reifenberger G, Collins VP. CDKN2 (p16/MTS1) gene deletion or CDK4 amplification occurs in the majority of glioblastomas. Cancer Res 1994; 54(24): 6321-6324.

47. He J, Olson JJ, James CD. Lack of p16INK4 or retinoblastoma protein (pRb), or amplification-associated overexpression of cdk4 is observed in distinct subsets of malignant glial tumors and cell lines. Cancer Res 1995; 55(21): 4833-4866.

48. Wei G, Lonardo F, Ueda T, et al. CDK4 gene amplification in osteosarcoma: reciprocal relationship with INK4A gene alterations and mapping of 12q13 amplicons. Int J Cancer 1999; 80(2): 199-204.

49. Simon R, Struckmann K, Schraml P, et al. Amplification pattern of 12q13-q15 genes (MDM2, CDK4, GLI) in urinary bladder cancer. Oncogene 2002; 21(16): 2476-2483.

50. Cairns P, Mao L, Merlo A, et al. Rates of p16 (MTS1) mutations in primary tumors with 9p loss. Science 1994; 265(5170): 415-417.

51. Nobori T, Miura K, Lois A, Takabayashi K, Carson DA. Deletions of the cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor gene in multiple human cancers. Nature 1994; 368(6473): 753-756.

52. Spruck CH 3rd, Gonzalez-Zulueta M, Shibata A, et al. p16 gene in uncultured tumours. Nature 1994; 370(6486): 183-184.

53. Herman JG, Merlo A, Mao L, et al. Inactivation of the CDKN2/p16/MTS1 gene is frequently associated with aberrant DNA methylation in all common human cancers. Cancer Res 1995; 55(20): 4525-4530.

54. Borg A, Sandberg T, Nilsson K, et al. High frequency of multiple melanomas and breast and pancreas carcinomas in CDKN2A mutation-positive melanoma families. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92(15): 1260-1266.

55. Thomas DM, Yang HS, Alexander K, Hinds PW. Role of the retinoblastoma protein in differentiation and senescence. Cancer Biol Ther 2003; 2(2): 124-130.

56. Sgambato A, Cittadini A, Faraglia B, Weinstein IB. Multiple functions of p27(Kip1) and its alterations in tumor cells: a review. J Cell Physiol 2000; 183(1): 18-27.

57. Kawamata N, Morosetti R, Miller CW, et al. Molecular analysis of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene p27/Kip1 in human malignancies. Cancer Res 1995; 55(11): 2266-2269.

58. Blain SW, Massague J. Breast cancer banishes p27 from nucleus. Nat Med 2002; 8(10): 1076-1078.

59. Slingerland J, Pagano M. Regulation of the cdk inhibitor p27 and its deregulation in cancer. J Cell Physiol 2000; 183(1): 10-17.

60. Esposito V, Baldi A, De Luca A, et al. Prognostic role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 1997; 57(16): 3381-3385.

61. Catzavelos C, Bhattacharya N, Ung YC, et al. Decreased levels of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 protein: prognostic implications in primary breast cancer. Nat Med 1997; 3(2): 227-230.

62. Loda M, Cukor B, Tam SW, et al. Increased proteasome-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in aggressive colorectal carcinomas. Nat Med 1997; 3(2): 231-234.

63. Masciullo V, Sgambato A, Pacilio C, et al. Frequent loss of expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 1999; 59(15): 3790-3794.

64. Singh SP, Lipman J, Goldman H, et al. Loss or altered subcellular localization of p27 in Barrett's associated adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 1998; 58(8): 1730-1735.

65. Baldassarre G, Belletti B, Bruni P, et al. Overexpressed cyclin D3 contributes to retaining the growth inhibitor p27 in the cytoplasm of thyroid tumor cells. J Clin Invest 1999; 104(7): 865-874.

66. Tsihlias J, Kapusta LR, DeBoer G, et al. Loss of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is a novel prognostic factor in localized human prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 1998; 58(3): 542-548.

67. Mizumatsu S, Tamiya T, Ono Y, et al. Expression of cell cycle regulator p27Kip1 is correlated with survival of patients with astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5(3): 551-557.

68. Erlanson M, Portin C, Linderholm B, Lindh J, Roos G, Landberg G. Expression of cyclin E and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in malignant lymphomas-prognostic implications. Blood 1998; 92(3): 770-777.

69. Yamasaki L, Pagano M. Cell cycle, proteolysis and cancer. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2004; 16(6): 623-628.

70. Orend G, Hunter T, Ruoslahti E. Cytoplasmic displacement of cyclin E-cdk2 inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 in anchorage-independent cells. Oncogene 1998; 16(20): 2575-2583.

71. Soucek T, Yeung RS, Hengstschlager M. Inactivation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 upon loss of the tuberous sclerosis complex gene-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95(26): 15,653-15,658.

72. Yamasaki L. Role of the RB tumor suppressor in cancer. Cancer Treat Res 2003; 115: 209-239.

73. Burke L, Flieder DB, Guinee DG, et al. Prognostic implications of molecular and immunohisto-chemical profiles of the Rb and p53 cell cycle regulatory pathways in primary non-small cell lung carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11(1): 232-241.

74. Zhu L, van den Heuvel S, Helin K, et al. Inhibition of cell proliferation by p107, a relative of the retinoblastoma protein. Genes Dev 1993; 7(7A): 1111-1125.

75. Goodrich DW, Wang NP, Qian YW, Lee EY, Lee WH. The retinoblastoma gene product regulates progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cell 1991; 67(2): 293-302.

76. Starostik P, Chow KN, Dean DC. Transcriptional repression and growth suppression by the p107 pocket protein. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16(7): 3606-3614.

77. Claudio PP, Howard CM, Baldi A, et al. p130/pRb2 has growth suppressive properties similar to yet distinctive from those of retinoblastoma family members pRb and p107. Cancer Res 1994; 54(21): 5556-5560.

78. Nevins JR. Toward an understanding of the functional complexity of the E2F and retinoblastoma families. Cell Growth Differ 1998; 9(8): 585-593.

79. Dyson N. The regulation of E2F by pRB-family proteins. Genes Dev 1998; 12(15): 2245-2262.

80. Moberg K, Starz MA, Lees JA. E2F-4 switches from p130 to p107 and pRB in response to cell cycle reentry. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16(4): 1436-1449.

81. Slansky JE, Farnham PJ. Introduction to the E2F family: protein structure and gene regulation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1996; 208: 1-30.

82. Weinberg RA. The retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle control. Cell 1995; 81(3): 323-330.

83. Mittnacht S. Control of pRB phosphorylation. Curr Opin Genet Dev 1998; 8(1): 21-27.

84. Smith EJ, Leone G, DeGregori J, Jakoi L, Nevins JR. The accumulation of an E2F-p130 transcriptional repressor distinguishes a G0 cell state from a G1 cell state. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16(12): 6965-6976.

85. Knudsen ES, Wang JY. Differential regulation of retinoblastoma protein function by specific Cdk phosphorylation sites. J Biol Chem 1996; 271(14): 8313-8320.

86. Lundberg AS, Weinberg RA. Functional inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein requires sequential modification by at least two distinct cyclin-cdk complexes. Mol Cell Biol 1998; 18(2): 753-761.

87. Bartek J, Bartkova J, Lukas J. The retinoblastoma protein pathway in cell cycle control and cancer. Exp Cell Res 1997; 237(1): 1-6.

88. Sherr CJ. Cancer cell cycles. Science 1996; 274(5293): 1672-1677.

89. Cobrinik D, Whyte P, Peeper DS, Jacks T, Weinberg RA. Cell cycle-specific association of E2F with the p130 E1A-binding protein. Genes Dev 1993; 7(12A): 2392-2404.

90. De Luca A, Baldi A, Esposito V, et al. The retinoblastoma gene family pRb/p105, p107, pRb2/p130 and simian virus-40 large T-antigen in human mesotheliomas. Nat Med 1997; 3(8): 913-916.

91. Kornblau SM, Chen N, del Giglio A, O'Brien S, Deisseroth AB. Retinoblastoma protein expression is frequently altered in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Res 1994; 54(1): 242-246.

92. Kornblau SM, Andreef M, Hu SX, et al. Low and maximally phosphorylated levels of the retinoblas-toma protein confer poor prognosis in newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia: a prospective study. Clin Cancer Res 1998; 4(8): 1955-1963.

93. Sauerbrey A, Stammler G, Zintl F, Volm M. Expression of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB-1) in acute leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 1998; 28(3-4): 275-283.

94. Brambilla E, Moro D, Gazzeri S, Brambilla C. Alterations of expression of Rb, p16(INK4A) and cyclin D1 in non-small cell lung carcinoma and their clinical significance. J Pathol 1999; 188(4): 351-360.

95. Baldi A, Esposito V, De Luca A, et al. Differential expression of the retinoblastoma gene family members pRb/p105, p107, and pRb2/p130 in lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1996; 2(7): 1239-1245.

96. Omura K, Nagasato A, Kanehira E, et al. Retinoblastoma protein and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen expression as predictors of recurrence in well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15(12): 3458-3463.

97. Cordon-Cardo C, Wartinger D, Petrylak D, et al. Altered expression of the retinoblastoma gene product: prognostic indicator in bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1992; 84(16): 1251-1256.

98. Theodorescu D, Broder SR, Boyd JC, Mills SE, Frierson HF, Jr. p53, bcl-2 and retinoblastoma proteins as long-term prognostic markers in localized carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 1997; 158(1): 131-137.

99. Tamboli P, Amin MB, Xu HJ, Linden MD. Immunohistochemical expression of retinoblastoma and p53 tumor suppressor genes in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: comparison with prostatic adenocarcinoma and benign prostate. Mod Pathol 1998; 11(3): 247-252.

100. Dong Y, Walsh MD, McGuckin MA, et al. Reduced expression of retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) and high expression of p53 are associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 1997; 74(4): 407-415.

101. Nakamura M, Konishi N, Tsunoda S, et al. Retinoblastoma protein expression and MIB-1 correlate with survival of patients with malignant astrocytoma. Cancer 1997; 80(2): 242-249.

102. Korkolopoulou PA, Angelopoulou MK, Kontopidou FN, et al. Retinoblastoma gene product and P21 (WAF1, CIP1) protein expression in non Hodgkin's lymphomas: a multivariate survival analysis. Leuk Lymphoma 2001; 40(5-6): 647-658.

103. Baldi A, Esposito V, De Luca A, et al. Differential expression of Rb2/p130 and p107 in normal human issues and in primary lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res 1997; 3(10): 1691-1697.

104. Susini T, Baldi F, Howard CM, et al. Expression of the retinoblastoma-related gene Rb2/p130 correlates with clinical outcome in endometrial cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(3): 1085-1093.

105. Susini T, Massi D, Paglierani M, et al. Expression of the retinoblastoma-related gene Rb2/p130 is downregulated in atypical endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol 2001; 32(4): 360-367.

106. Milde-Langosch K, Goemann C, Methner C, Rieck G, Bamberger AM, Loning T. Expression of Rb2/p130 in breast and endometrial cancer: correlations with hormone receptor status. Br J Cancer 2001; 85(4): 546-551.

107. Massaro-Giordano M, Baldi G, De Luca A, Baldi A, Giordano A. Differential expression of the retinoblastoma gene family members in choroidal melanoma: prognostic significance. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5(6): 1455-1458.

108. Leoncini L, Bellan C, Cossu A, et al. Retinoblastoma-related p107 and pRb2/p130 proteins in malignant lymphomas: distinct mechanisms of cell growth control. Clin Cancer Res 1999; 5(12): 4065-4072.

109. Zamparelli A, Masciullo V, Bovicelli A, et al. Expression of cell-cycle-associated proteins pRB2/p130 and p27kip in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Hum Pathol 2001; 32(1): 4-9.

110. Claudio PP, Zamparelli A, Garcia FU, et al. Expression of cell-cycle-regulated proteins pRb2/p130, p107, p27(kip1), p53, mdm-2, and Ki-67 (MIB-1) in prostatic gland adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2002; 8(6): 1808-1815.

111. D'Andrilli G, Masciullo V, Bagella L, et al. Frequent loss of pRb2/p130 in human ovarian carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10(9): 3098-4103.

112. Xu B, Lim DS, Kastan MB. Two molecularly distinct G(2)/M checkpoints are induced by ionizing irradiation. Mol Cell Biol 2002; 22(4): 1049-1059.

113. Nyberg KA, Michelson RJ, Putnam CW, Weinert TA. Toward maintaining the genome: DNA damage and replication checkpoints. Annu Rev Genet 2002; 36: 617-656.

114. Donzelli M, Draetta GF. Regulating mammalian checkpoints through Cdc25 inactivation. EMBO Rep 2003; 4(7): 671-677.

115. Bulavin DV, Higashimoto Y, Popoff IJ, et al. Initiation of a G2/M checkpoint after ultraviolet radiation requires p38 kinase. Nature 2001; 411(6833): 102-107.

116. Taylor WR, Stark GR. Regulation of the G2/M transition by p53. Oncogene 2001; 20(15): 1803-1815.

117. Zhou BB, Bartek J. Targeting the checkpoint kinases: chemosensitization versus chemoprotection. Nat Rev Cancer 2004; 4(3): 216-225.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment