References

1. Tashiro H, Blazes MS, Wu R, et al. Mutations in PTEN are frequent in endometrial carcinoma but rare in other common gynecologic malignancies. Cancer Res 1997; 57: 3935-3940.

2. Levine RL, Cargile CB, Blazes MS, van Rees B, Kurman RJ, Ellenson LH. PTEN mutations and microsatellite instability in complex atypical hyperplasia, a precursor lesion to uterine endometrioid carcinoma. Cancer Res 1998; 58(15): 3254-3258.

3. Maxwell GL, Risinger JI, Gumbs C, et al. Mutation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in endometrial hyperplasias. Cancer Res 1998; 58(12): 2500-2503.

4. Maehama T, Dixon JE. The tumor suppressor, PTEN/MMAC1, dephosphorylates the lipid second messenger, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(22): 13,375-13,378.

5. Sakurada A, Hamada H, Fukushige S, et al. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of the PTEN gene inhibits cell growth by induction of apoptosis in endometrial cancer. Int J Oncol 1999; 15(6): 1069-1074.

6. Zhu X, Kwon CH, Schlosshauer PW, Ellenson LH, Baker SJ. PTEN induces a G1 cell cycle arrest and decreases Cyclin D3 levels in endometrial carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 2001; 61(11): 4569-4575.

7. Soslow RA, Shen PU, Chung MH, Isacson C, Baergen RN. Cyclin D1 expression in high-grade endometrial carcinomas—association with histologic subtype. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000; 19(4): 329-334.

8. Gurin CC, Federici MG, Kang L, Boyd J. Causes and consequences of microsatellite instability in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res 1999; 59(2): 462-466.

9. Mutter GL, Lin MC, Fitzgerald JT, et al. Altered PTEN Expression as a Diagnostic Marker for the Earliest Endometrial Precancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92(11): 924-930.

10. Risinger JI, Hayes K, Maxwell GL, et al. PTEN mutation in endometrial cancers is associated with favorable clinical and pathologic characteristics. Clin Cancer Res 1998; 4(12): 3005-3010.

11. Esteller M, Levine R, Baylin SB, Ellenson LH, Herman JG. MLH1 promoter hypermethylation is associated with the microsatellite instability phenotype in sporadic endometrial carcinomas. Oncogene 1998; 17(18): 2413-2417.

12. Katabuchi H, van Rees B, Lambers AR, et al. Mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes are not responsible for microsatellite instability in most sporadic endometrial carcinomas. Cancer Res 1995; 55(23): 5556-5560.

13. Esteller M, Catasus L, Matias-Guiu X, et al. hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation is an early event in human endometrial tumorigenesis. Am J Pathol 1999; 155(5): 1767-1772.

14. Lax SF, Kendall B, Tashiro H, Slebos RJ, Hedrick L. The frequency of p53, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability differs in uterine endometrioid and serous carcinoma: evidence of distinct molecular genetic pathways. Cancer 2000; 88(4): 814-824.

15. Lukes AS, Kohler MF, Pieper CF, et al. Multivariable analysis of DNA ploidy, p53, and HER-2/neu as prognostic factors in endometrial cancer. Cancer 1994; 73: 2380-2385.

16. Fukuchi T, Sakamoto M, Tsuda H, Maruyama K, Nozawa S, Hirohashi S. Beta-catenin mutation in carcinoma of the uterine endometrium. Cancer Res 1998; 58(16): 3526-3528.

17. Kobayashi K, Sagae S, Nishioka Y, Tokino T, Kudo R. Mutations of the beta-catenin gene in endometrial carcinomas. Japan J Cancer Res 1999; 90(1): 55-59.

18. Tashiro H, Isacson C, Levine R, Kurman RJ, Cho KR, Hedrick L. p53 gene mutations are common in uterine serous carcinoma and occur as an early event in their pathogenesis. Am J Pathol 1997; 150(1): 177-185.

19. Carcangiu ML, Chambers JT. Early pathologic stage clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium: comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1995; 14: 30-38.

20. Cirisano FD, Jr, Robboy SJ, Dodge RK, et al. The outcome of stage I-II clinically and surgically staged papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared with endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 77(1): 55-65.

21. Giri PG, Schneider V, Belgrad R. Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: an uncommon entity with a favorable prognosis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1981; 7(10): 1383-1387.

22. Kanbour-Shakir A, Tobon H. Primary clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1991; 10(1): 67-78.

23. Lax SF, Pizer ES, Ronnett BM, Kurman RJ. Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium is characterized by a distinctive profile of p53, Ki-67, estrogen, and progesterone receptor expression. Hum Pathol 1998; 29(6): 551-558.

24. An HJ, Logani S, Isacson C, Ellenson LH. Molecular characterization of uterine clear cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2004; 17(5): 530-537.

25. Fornander T, Rutqvist LE, Cedermark B, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen in early breast cancer: occurrence of new primary cancers. Lancet 1989; 1(8630): 117-120.

26. Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90(18): 1371-1388.

27. Fisher B, Costantino JP, Redmond CK, Fisher ER, Wickerham DL, Cronin WM. Endometrial cancer in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(7): 527-537.

28. Wickerham DL, Fisher B, Wolmark N, et al. Association of tamoxifen and uterine sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(11): 2758-2760.

29. Mourits MJ, Ten Hoor KA, van der Zee AG, Willemse PH, de Vries EG, Hollema H. The effects of tamoxifen on proliferation and steroid receptor expression in postmenopausal endometrium. J Clin Pathol 2002; 55(7): 514-519.

30. Sakamoto T, Eguchi H, Omoto Y, Ayabe T, Mori H, Hayashi S. Estrogen receptor-mediated effects of tamoxifen on human endometrial cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 192(1-2): 93-104.

31. Shang Y, Brown M. Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs. Science 2002; 295(5564): 2465-2468.

32. Stackievicz R, Drucker L, Radnay J, Beyth Y, Yarkoni S, Cohen I. Tamoxifen modulates apoptotic pathways in primary endometrial cell cultures. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7(2): 415-420.

33. Podsypanina K, Ellenson LH, Nemes A, et al. Mutation of Pten/Mmac1 in mice causes neoplasia in multiple organ systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96(4): 1563-1568.

34. Stambolic V, Tsao MS, Macpherson D, Suzuki A, Chapman WB, Mak TW. High incidence of breast and endometrial neoplasia resembling human Cowden syndrome in pten+/- mice. Cancer Res 2000; 60(13): 3605-3611.

35. Wang H, Douglas W, Lia M, et al. DNA mismatch repair deficiency accelerates endometrial tumori-genesis in Pten heterozygous mice. Am J Pathol 2002; 160(4): 1481-1486.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment