1. Kurman RJ, Main CS, Chen HC. Intermediate trophoblast: a distinctive form of trophoblast with specific morphological, biochemical and functional features. Placenta 1984; 5: 349-370.

2. Kurman RJ. The morphology, biology, and pathology of intermediate trophoblast: a look back to the present. Hum Pathol 1991; 22: 847-855.

3. Haining RE, Cameron IT, van Papendorp C, et al. Epidermal growth factor in human endometrium: proliferative effects in culture and immunocytochemical localization in normal and endometriotic tissues. Hum Reprod 1991; 6: 1200-1205.

4. Bischof P, Meisser A, Campana A. Paracrine and autocrine regulators of trophoblast invasion-a review. Placenta 2000; 14: S55-S60.

5. Shih IM, Kurman RJ. The pathology of intermediate trophoblastic tumors and tumor-like lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2001; 20: 31-47.

6. Mi S, Lee X, Li X-P, et al. Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein involved in human placental morphogenesis. Nature 2000; 403: 785-789.

7. Janatpour MJ, McMaster MT, Genbacev O, et al. Id-2 regulates critical aspects of human cytotro-phoblast differentiation, invasion and migration. Development 2000; 127: 549-558.

8. Shih IM, Kurman RJ. p63 expression is useful in the distinction of epithelioid trophoblastic and placental site trophoblastic tumors by profiling trophoblastic subpopulations. Am J Surg Pathol 2004; 28: 1177-1183.

9. Yang A, McKeon F. p63 and p73: p53 mimics, menaces and more. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2000; 1: 199-207.

10. Westfall MD, Mays DJ, Sniezek JC, Pietenpol JA. The Delta Np63 alpha phosphoprotein binds the p21 and 14-3-3 sigma promoters in vivo and has transcriptional repressor activity that is reduced by Hay-Wells syndrome-derived mutations. Mol Cell Biol 2003; 23: 2264-2276.

11. Shih IM, Kurman RJ. Ki-67 labeling index in the differential diagnosis of exaggerated placental site, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and choriocarcinoma: a double immunohistochemical staining technique using Ki-67 and Mel-CAM antibodies. Hum Pathol 1998; 29: 27-33.

12. Shih IM, Schnaar RL, Gearhart JD, Kurman RJ. Distribution of cells bearing the HNK-1 epitope in the human placenta. Placenta 1997; 18: 667-674.

13. Fisher SJ, Damsky CH. Human cytotrophoblast invasion. Semin Cell Biol 1993; 4: 183-188.

14. Chassin D, Benifla JL, Delattre C, et al. Identification of genes overexpressed in tumors through preferential expression screening in trophoblasts. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 5217-5223.

15. Yagel S, Parhar RS, Jeffrey JJ, Lala PK. Normal nonmetastatic human trophoblast cells share in vitro invasive properties of malignant cells. J Cell Physiol 1988; 136: 455-462.

16. Shih Ie M, Hsu MY, Oldt RJ, Herlyn M, Gearhart JD, Kurman RJ. The Role of E-cadherin in the Motility and Invasion of Implantation Site Intermediate Trophoblast. Placenta 2002; 23: 706-715.

17. Graham CH. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta on the plasminogen activator system in cultured first trimester human cytotrophoblasts. Placenta 1997; 18: 137-143.

18. Graham CH, Connelly I, MacDougall JR, Kerbel RS, Stetler-Stevenson WG, Lala PK. Resistance of malignant trophoblast cells to both the anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects of transforming growth factor- beta. Exp Cell Res 1994; 214: 93-99.

19. Caniggia I, Grisaru-Gravnosky S, Kuliszewsky M, Post M, Lye SJ. Inhibition of TGF-beta 3 restores the invasive capability of extravillous trophoblasts in preeclamptic pregnancies. J Clin Invest 1999; 103: 1641-1650.

20. Cheung AN, Shen DH, Khoo US, Wong LC, Ngan HY. p21WAF1/CIP1 expression in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with clinicopathological parameters, and Ki67 and p53 gene expression. J Clin Pathol 1998; 51: 159-162.

21. Chilosi M, Piazzola E, Lestani M, et al. Differential expression of p57kip2, a maternally imprinted cdk inhibitor, in normal human placenta and gestational trophoblastic disease. Lab Invest 1998; 78: 269-276.

22. Mao TT, Seidman JD, Kurman RJ, Shih IM. Cyclin E and p16 immunoreactivity in epithelioid trophoblastic tumor- an aid in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30: 1105-1110.

23. Bryant-Greenwood GD. The extracellular matrix of the human fetal membranes: structure and function. Placenta 1998; 19: 1-11.

24. Shih I-M, Mazur MT, Kurman RJ. Gestational trophoblastic disease, in Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract (Kurman RJ, ed.), 5th ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, 2002, pp. 1193-1247.

25. Shih IM, Kurman RJ. Expression of melanoma cell adhesion molecule in intermediate trophoblast. Lab Invest 1996; 75: 377-388.

26. Mazur MT, Lurain JR, Brewer JI. Fatal gestational choriocarcinoma. Clinicopathologic study of patients treated at a trophoblastic disease center. Cancer 1982; 50: 1833-1846.

27. Grummer R, Donner A, Winterhager E. Characteristic growth of human choriocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Placenta 1999; 20: 547-553.

28. Fulop V, Mok SC, Genest DR, Szigetvari I, Cseh I, Berkowitz RS. c-myc, c-erbB-2, c-fms and bcl-2 oncoproteins. Expression in normal placenta, partial and complete mole, and choriocarcinoma. J Reprod Med 1998; 43: 101-110.

29. Chen CA, Chen YH, Chen TM, et al. Infrequent mutation in tumor suppressor gene p53 in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Carcinogenesis 1994; 15: 2221-2223.

30. Shi Y-F, Xie X, Zhao C-L, et al. Lack of mutation in tumour-suppressor gene p53 in gestational trophoblastic tumours. Br J Cancer 1996; 73: 1216-1219.

31. Fulop V, Mok SC, Genest DR, Gati I, Doszpod J, Berkowitz RS. p53, p21, Rb and mdm2 oncoproteins. Expression in normal placenta, partial and complete mole, and choriocarcinoma. J Reprod Med 1998; 43: 119-127.

32. Fulop V, Colitti CV, Genest D, et al. DOC-2/hDab2, a candidate tumor suppressor gene involved in the development of gestational trophoblastic diseases. Oncogene 1998; 17: 419-424.

33. Fulop V, Mok SC, Berkowitz RS. Molecular biology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a review. J Reprod Med 2004; 49: 415-422.

34. Matsuda T, Sasaki M, Kato H, et al. Human chromosome 7 carries a putative tumor suppressor gene(s) involved in choriocarcinoma. Oncogene 1997; 15: 2773-2781.

35. Stahle-Backdhal M, Inoue M, Zedenius J, et al. Decreased expression of Ras GTPase activating protein in human trophoblastic tumors. Am J Pathol 1995; 146: 1073-1078.

36. Singer G, Kurman RJ, McMaster M, Shih I-M. HLA-G immunoreactivity is specific for intermediate trophoblast in gestational trophoblastic disease and can serve as a useful marker in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 2002; 26 (7): 914-920.

37. Oldt RJ 3rd, Kurman RJ, Shih Ie M. Molecular genetic analysis of placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors confirms their trophoblastic origin. Am J Pathol 2002; 161: 1033-1037.

38. Shih I-M, Kurman RJ. Molecular basis of gestational trophoblastic diseases. Curr Mol Med 2002; 2: 1-12.

39. Ichikawa N, Zhai YL, Shiozawa T, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of cell cycle regulatory gene products in normal trophoblast and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1998; 17: 235-240.

40. Fisher RA, Paradinas FJ, Newlands ES, Boxer GM. Genetic evidence that placental site trophoblastic tumours can originate from a hydatidiform mole or a normal conceptus. Br J Cancer 1992; 65: 355-358.

41. Arima T, Imamura T, Sakuragi N, et al. Malignant trophoblastic neoplasms with different modes of origin. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1995; 85: 5-15.

42. Kobel M, Pohl G, Schmitt WD, Hauptmann S, Wang TL, Shih Ie M. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for migration and invasion of placental site trophoblastic tumor. Am J Pathol 2005; 167: 879-885.

43. Sebolt-Leopold JS. MEK Inhibitors: a therapeutic approach to targeting the Ras-MAP kinase pathway in tumors. Curr Pharm Des 2004; 10: 1907-1914.

44. Holmstrom TH, Tran SE, Johnson VL, Ahn NG, Chow SC, Eriksson JE. Inhibition of mitogen-acti-vated kinase signaling sensitizes HeLa cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 1999; 19: 5991-6002.

45. Cowley GP, Smith ME. Modulation of E-cadherin expression and morphological phenotype in the intravascular component of adenocarcinomas. Int J Cancer 1995; 60: 325-329.

46. Huang C, Jacobson K, Schaller MD. MAP kinases and cell migration. J Cell Sci 2004; 117: 4619-4628.

47. Eliceiri BP, Klemke R, Stromblad S, Cheresh DA. Integrin alphavbeta3 requirement for sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activity during angiogenesis. J Cell Biol 1998; 140: 1255-1263.

48. Mansour SJ, Matten WT, Hermann AS, et al. Transformation of mammalian cells by constitutively active MAP kinase kinase. Science 1994; 265: 966-970.

49. Mansour SJ, Resing KA, Candi JM, et al. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation of MAP kinase kinase: determination of phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1994; 116: 304-314.

50. Shih IM, Seidman JD, Kurman RJ. Placental site nodule and characterization of distinctive types of intermediate trophoblast. Hum Pathol 1999; 30: 687-694.

51. Shih I-M, Kurman RJ. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor—A neoplasm distinct from choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor simulating carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 1393-1403.

52. Fadare O, Parkash V, Carcangiu ML, Hui P. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: clinicopathological features with an emphasis on uterine cervical involvement. Mod Pathol 2006; 19: 75-82.

53. Schraml P, Bucher C, Bissig H, et al. Cyclin E overexpression and amplification in human tumours. J Pathol 2003; 200: 375-382.

VI Hereditary Issues in Gynecological Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment