Diet

Dietary factors, such as high fat and meat intake as well as obesity have been associated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer (46). Some have suggested that these factors are associated with residence in an industrialized nation (47). Although, others have noted that countries with higher per capital consumption of fat, such as Sweden have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer than those with lower consumption, such as Japan and China (48,49).

Coffee consumption may also play a role in risk modification. Again, epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that the highest risk of ovarian cancer occurs in Sweden, which also has the highest per capital consumption of coffee (50). A case-control study conducted by Trichopoulos et al. (51) confirmed a statistically significant association between coffee drinking and ovarian cancer, although others have found no significant correlation (49,52).

Vitamin A consumption has been noted to exert a protective effect, based on one study by Byers et al. (52), which may be because of its antioxidant effects. However, the Nurses' Health Study, encompassing more than 80,000 women, noted no correlation between intake of vitamins A, C, and E as well as fruit and vegetable intake, with ovarian cancer risk (53).

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