Distribution Systems

Having produced water of suitable purity it is vital to provide a means of maintaining that quality. Control over bio-burden and endotoxin is essential. On a large scale this can be achieved most effectively by recirculation at elevated temperatures, typically over 80 °C, to inhibit microbial growth. The water can be cooled locally before use or the loop operated cool during the working day and raised to high temperatures at other times. Such technology is well established for 'Water for Injection' production. Cold recirculating loops are generally less expensive to install but require regular flushing and sanitization, for example with ozone, to maintain water purity.

Pump

Figure 2.3 Water system for producing Highly Purified Water (EP).

Pump

Figure 2.3 Water system for producing Highly Purified Water (EP).

PURELA8 Ultra Genetic

Figure 2.4 Laboratory water system producing ultrapure water suitable for cell culture.

PURELA8 Ultra Genetic

Figure 2.4 Laboratory water system producing ultrapure water suitable for cell culture.

On a laboratory scale good bacterial and endotoxin purity can be maintained using intermittent recirculation through an UV chamber and an ultrafilter combined with periodic chemical sanitization. Such an approach is shown in Figure 2.4. Its advantages are described by Mortimer and Whitehead (2001).

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