The USDA and the IOM each have evidence-based approaches for addressing diet and lifestyle modification: Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, released by the USDA and the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) on 12 January 2005  and the Institute of Medicine's IOM's Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino
Table 9.4 IOM Report and USDA Guidelines
Adults should consume 20-35% of their total calories from fat (infants and younger children need 25% to 40%);
Adults should consume 10% to 35% of their total calories from protein; Adults and children should engage in activities equivalent to a total of 60 min of moderately intense physical activity each day
Consume a variety of foods within and among basic food groups while staying within energy needs;
Control calorie intake to manage body weight;
Be physically active every day;
Increase daily intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and non-fat or low-fat milk and milk products
Choose fats wisely for good health;
Choose carbohydrates wisely for good health;
Choose and prepare foods with little salt;
If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation;
Acids, released on 5 September 2002 . These reports include evidence-based guidelines for diet and exercise aimed at reducing chronic disease. In response to public and professional interest in low carbohydrate diets, the IOM recommends a minimum of 130 g of total carbohydrates daily (45%-65% of total calories), a value above the range of many low carbohydrate diets. The USDA guidelines translate these macronutrient guidelines into specific foods to include as part of a healthy diet. The key findings of the IOM report and the USDA guidelines are included in Table 9.4. A sample 1,500-calorie diet is also included in Table 9.5, illustrating the recommendations of both reports.
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