• Malnutrition continues to affect one-third to one-half of hospitalized patients, especially the elderly population, and has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality.
• Nutritional parameters are unreliable in isolating the effects of malnutrition from the influence of chronic disease.
• Weight loss is the best predictor of mortality in institutionalized, hospitalized, and community-based elderly.
• The short-term outcome benefit of oral supplementation in the elderly is still unclear.
• There is difficulty in distinguishing the independent affects of malnutrition versus stress responses on mortality of chronic kidney disease patients.
• Low body weight is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in COPD patients.
• Prolonged nutritional support (> 2 weeks) did not improve lung function in COPD patients; its effect on mortality is unclear.
• Perioperative nutritional support benefits the most severely malnourished patients, so these patients should receive nutritional support for 7 to 10 days preoperatively to reduce postoperative complications.
• Malnutrition and obesity significantly affect length of hospital stay and morbidity in organ transplant patients. Nutritional support while patients wait for organ transplantation may improve survival.
• The optimal timing of commencement of nutritional support in hospitalized patients with poor intake is unclear.
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WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.