Malnutrition is a global health burden and serves as a major risk factor for illness and death. A strong association with increased morbidity and mortality remains. This chapter will focus on illness-associated malnutrition in the United States and its effects on chronic disease outcomes.
Malnutrition can arise from primary or secondary causes, with the former resulting from inadequate or poor-quality food intake and the latter from diseases that alter food intake or nutrient requirements, metabolism, or absorption. Primary malnutrition, which occurs mainly in developing countries and is unusual in the United States, will not be discussed. Secondary malnutrition, the main form encountered in developed countries, was largely unrecognized until the late 1960s or early 1970s. It was not well appreciated that persons with adequate food supplies can become malnourished as a result of acute or chronic diseases that alter nutrient intake or metabolism.
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WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.