• Multiple factors play a role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis including age, genetic factors and possibly food substances.
• Mechanisms of dietary carcinogenesis fall into several categories: direct DNA damage, cytochrome activation or inhibition, carcinogen activation, direct cytotoxicity, oxidative damage, alterations in physiology and hormonal effects.
• Weight loss, prevalent in gastrointestinal cancer patients, results from multiple etiologies including physiologic abnormalities associated with the tumor, host response and side effects of anti-cancer treatment. This weight loss can cause symptom distress and decreased quality of life.
• The use of SNS in cancer patients should generally be reserved for those circumstances where a patient is moderately or severely malnourished as a result of their cancer or cancer therapy or is likely to be unable to meet their nutritional requirements orally for more than 7-10 days, and in whom future active therapy is planned to treat the underlying malignancy.
• Preoperative planning for postoperative nutrition care, feeding method and access is imperative for the maintenance of optimal nutrition status and therefore improved wound healing and maintenance of gut function.
• Immune-enhancing diets that contain omega-3 fatty acids (n3), glutamine (GLN), arginine (ARG) and nucleic acids in combination may be beneficial perioperatively in patients undergoing major GI cancer resections.
• Chemoprevention studies are now underway to prevent the development of gastrointestinal cancers. Dietary components may cause chemopro-tective effects through a variety of mechanisms including: cytochrome activation or inhibition, carcinogen detoxication, antioxidant activity, immune stimulation, alterations in physiology and hormonal effects.
Was this article helpful?
WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.