Anthropometrics is the scientific study of measurements of the human body. Estimates of body energy stores can be estimated by measurement of body compartments. Anthropometrics is used as a bedside method of estimating body fat and protein stores using two bedside instruments, a LangeR caliper and tape measure (Fig. 1.3). The measurements obtained from anthropometrics are compared to reference study "normals" and then followed in the same patient over time. A drawback of anthropometrics is its reliance on age-, sex- and race-matched reference values. Additionally, because muscle mass is somewhat dependent on exercise, bedridden patients can have decreased muscle mass without a corresponding reduction in body protein stores.
Inaccurate measurements of body protein and fat stores using anthro-pometric methods are common in certain patient populations. For example, critically ill patients, as well as patients with liver disease and/or renal disease, often present with total body water increase and significant edema. Furthermore, there is significant variance among clinicians measuring anthropometrics in the same patient, reported to range from 5 to 23 percent .
The measurement of the triceps skinfold with a LangeR caliper has been recognized as an indirect marker of body fat stores. Body fat stores can be tracked over time to provide an estimate of the chronicity of a weight loss process. The measurement of the circumference of the mid-point of the upper arm using a tape measure or midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) has also been recognized as an indirect marker of body protein stores . The minimum MAMC known to be compatible with survival is between 900 mm2 to 1, 200 mm2 . Lastly, a widely accepted definition of malnutrition is a BMI less than 20kg/m2 and an MAMC less than the 15th percentile.
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WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.