2 Protein Energy Malnutrition
3 Prevalence of Malnutrition
4 Outcomes of Malnutrition
6 Renal Disease
7 Pulmonary Disease
8 Perioperative Nutritional Support
9 Transplantation 10 Conclusions
Malnutrition is a significant global problem in health care. There are strong associations between malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality and elevated health care costs. This chapter discusses malnutrition and outcomes in geriatrics, renal disease, respiratory disease, transplantation, and in the perioperative setting. Although there is substantial evidence documenting the benefits of medical nutrition therapy, more studies are needed to better quantify these benefits in not only hospitalized patients but in all who have a chronic disease.
Key Words: Malnutrition, Chronic Disease, Outcomes
From: Clinical Gastroenterology: Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Disease Edited by: M.H. DeLegge © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ
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WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.