Whats New in This Edition

We have again updated coverage throughout the text to reflect the rapid and sometimes surprising growth in the field of microbiology. This effort is particularly evident in Chapter 15 (The Innate Immune Response) and Chapter 16 (The Adaptive Immune Response) reflecting the latest thoughts on how the immune system protects us from infectious disease.

Some coverage has been simplified in this edition, particularly in the areas of genetics and biotechnology. More emphasis is given to applications of basic biotechnology in Chapter 9 (Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA) and basic microbiology in Chapter 31 (Environmental Microbiology: Treatment of Water, Wastes, and Polluted Habitats).

After listening to a large number of microbiology instructors, we have moved significant coverage of the helminths to our xxvi Preface

Online Learning Center. After listening to a large number of microbiology students, we have added even more summary tables to facilitate learning. To help both instructors and students, main headings are now double-numbered for ease of reference.

Significantly revised chapters include:

Chapter 6

Metabolism: Fueling Cell Growth

■ Reorganization of coverage of enzymes with a new summary table listing characteristics of enzyme inhibition

■ Reorganization and content revision of central metabolic pathways to reflect a more familiar presentation

■ Revised separate section entitled "photosynthesis"; expanded to describe the different types of photosynthesis in plants vs. microorganisms with a new summary table comparing photosynthetic mechanisms

■ New figures showing the electron transport chain and photosystems

Chapter 9

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

■ Significantly revised and reorganized, this chapter now opens with a new section on applications of biotechnology

■ Fewer techniques are presented and in less detail

■ New summary tables listing recombinant DNA technologies and their applications

■ New section on the bioethical concerns surrounding DNA technologies

Chapter 15

The Innate Immune Response

■ Entirely new chapter rewritten, reorganized, and updated with the assistance of an immunologist involved in cutting-edge research; new title reflects current direction of research in immunity

■ Focus on new approach of pattern recognition in innate immunity

■ New coverage of toll-like receptors in the immune system

■ Decreased coverage of complement activation pathways; new overview figure of complement cascade

■ New summary table of innate defense mechanisms

■ Revised figure of inflammation showing activity within capillaries

Chapter 16

The Adaptive Immune Response

■ Entirely new chapter rewritten, reorganized, and updated with the assistance of an immunologist involved in cutting-edge research; new title reflects current direction of research in immunity

■ New opening section introducing humoral and cellular immunity; new overview figure linking roles of humoral and cellular immunity

■ New overview section with new figure describing protective outcomes of antibody-antigen binding

■ New Future Challenges box on the danger model of immunity

Chapter 19

Host-Microbe Interactions

■ Consolidates topics into major conceptual units that effectively build to key points

■ Reorganization now presents two major divisions:

(1) principles of infectious disease and (2) mechanisms of pathogenesis

■ New discussion of how microorganisms evade host defenses, building on concepts learned in earlier immunology chapters

■ New discussion on damaging effects of infection and of the immune response

■ New discussion of mechanisms of viral and eukaryotic pathogenesis

Other revisions include:

■ New coverage of genomics and the threat of bioterrorism

■ Updated growth curves including stage of prolonged decline

■ New summary tables listing components taking part in DNA replication, transcription, and translation.

■ Revision and simplification of mechanisms to control transcription and the lac operon

■ Updated and expanded coverage of prions and prion disease

■ New summary table of diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus

■ A new title of chapter 30 reflects the focus on new coverage of microbial communities including microbial mats, techniques to study microbial ecology including FISH and DGGE, and mutualisms between eukaryotes and microbes

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