Virus HIV Infection and AIDS

Microorganisms such as Pneumocystis carinii are common, but of such low virulence that they only cause disease in individuals with immunodeficiency disorders. When such a disease appears, it strongly suggests that the victim is immunodeficient. In the United States in 1981, a number of cases of P. carinii pneumonia in previously healthy homosexual men first led to the recognition of AIDS. The acronym AIDS, for "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome," was first used in 1982 by the Centers for Disease Control for diseases that were at least moderately predictive of a defect in cellular immunity in subjects with no apparent cause for low resistance to the diseases. These AIDS-defining diseases (table 29.1) were useful in studying the AIDS epidemic, especially before the cause was known. Immunodeficiency, however, is the end stage of a disease with many other manifestations. AIDS is therefore more appropriately called HIV disease, after its causative agent, human immuno-defi-ciency virus (HIV). In this chapter, HIV disease implies that repli

Key:

Number newly infected

Number living with HIV/AIDS

North America 45,000

940,000

Western Europe

30,000

560,000

Eastern Europe/ Central Asia

250,000 1 million

East Asia/ Pacific 270,000 1 million

Key:

Number newly infected

Number living with HIV/AIDS

Western Europe

30,000

560,000

Eastern Europe/ Central Asia

250,000 1 million

East Asia/ Pacific 270,000 1 million

Latin America 130,000

1.4 million

Sub-Saharan Africa 3.4 million

28.1 million

Australia/ New Zealand 500 15,000

Figure 29.1 The HIV/AIDS Epidemic Two Decades After the Onset At the end of 2001, 40 million people were living with HIV/AIDS, 5 million of them newly infected during the year.

Latin America 130,000

1.4 million

North Africa/ Middle East 80,000

440,000

Sub-Saharan Africa 3.4 million

28.1 million

Australia/ New Zealand 500 15,000

Figure 29.1 The HIV/AIDS Epidemic Two Decades After the Onset At the end of 2001, 40 million people were living with HIV/AIDS, 5 million of them newly infected during the year.

cation of the virus is causing symptoms or demonstrable damage to the body, while HIV infection means only that the virus has entered the body and is replicating, whether or not disease has occurred. The term AIDS refers to the end stage of HIV disease, characterized by unusual tumors and immunodeficiency. ■ immunodeficiency disorders, p. 454

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