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blot test. Why not the other way around, with the ELISA second?

10. What test is sensitive enough to detect the extremely small quantities of specific IgE antibodies in blood?

Multiple Choice

1. All of the following are attenuated vaccines, except that against A. measles. B. mumps. C. rubella.

D. Salk polio. E. yellow fever.

2. Examples of active immunization include

A. giving antibodies against diphtheria.

B. gamma globulin injections to prevent hepatitis.

C. Sabin polio immunization.

D. rabies immune globulin.

E. tetanus immune globulin.

3. Disease may be caused in immunosuppressed individuals by administration of

A. inactivated whole agent vaccines.

B. toxoids.

C. subunit vaccines.

D. genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B.

E. attenuated vaccines.

440 Chapter 17 Applications of Immune Responses

4. Vaccines ideally should be all of the following, except

A. effective in protecting against the disease.

B. inexpensive.

C. stable.

D. living.

E. easily administered.

5. An important subunit vaccine that is widely used is the A. pertussis vaccine. B. Sabin vaccine. C. Salk vaccine. D. measles vaccine. E. mumps vaccine.

6. Antibodies against viruses can be detected by all of the following tests, except

A. hemagglutination inhibition.

B. complement fixation.

C. neutralization of virus replication in cell culture.

D. toxin neutralization.

7. Precipitation tests include all of the following, except

A. radial immunodiffusion.

C. complement fixation.

D. immunoelectrophoresis.

E. double diffusion in gel.

8. Characteristics of both radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are

A. they are sensitive and efficient tests.

B. a radioactive label is used.

C. they are competitive inhibition assays.

D. they require large amounts of serum to be tested.

E. peroxidase and chromogen are added.

9. Which of the following would be most useful for screening thousands of patient specimens for antibodies that indicate a certain disease?

A. Western blot

B. fluorescent antibody

C. ELISA

D. All of the above

E. None of the above

10. In quantifying antibodies in a patient's serum

A. total protein in the serum is measured.

B. the antibody is usually measured in grams per ml.

C. the serum is serially diluted.

D. both antigen and antibody are diluted.

E. the titer refers to the amount of antigen added.

Applications

1. A chemist working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture is interested in using simple, fast tests to gather information about the quality of prepared foods sold for human consumption. Explain how immunodiffusion can be used in the food industry to test for food quality.

2. Many dairy operations keep cow's milk for sale and use formula and feed to raise any calves. One farmer noticed that calves raised on the formula and feed needed to be treated for diarrhea more frequently than calves left with their mothers to nurse. He had some tests run on the diets and discovered no differences in the calories or nutritional content. The farmer called a veterinarian and asked him to explain the observations. What was the vet's response?

Critical Thinking

1. In figure 17.3, how would the curve change if the concentration of antibody in the original sample were increased? (Would the shape of the curve change? Would the curve be shifted left, right, up, or down?) Briefly explain your answer.

2. A cell biologist suggested measuring cell-mediated immunity by measuring the incorporation of adenine (instead of thymine) into DNA in lymphocyte cultures stimulated by antigen. Would this give different results compared with measuring thymidine incorporation? Why or why not?

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