Symptoms

Poliomyelitis usually begins with the symptoms of meningitis: headache, fever, stiff neck, and nausea. In addition, pain and spasm of some muscles generally occur, later followed by paralysis. Over the ensuing weeks and months, muscles shrink and bones do not develop normally in the affected area (figure 26.15). In the more severe cases, the muscles of respiration are paralyzed, and the victim requires an artificial respirator, a machine to pump air in and out of the lungs. Some recovery of function is the rule if the person survives the acute stage of the

26.3 Viral Diseases of the Nervous System 677

H EEE only

I I EEE and SLE

H WEE only

I I No activity reported

I I Surveillance not conducted

Figure 26.14 Distribution of Encephalitis-Causing Arboviruses Reported presence of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viruses in mosquitoes, sentinels, or wild birds, United States, 1996 to 1997.

H EEE only

I I EEE and SLE

H WEE only

I I No activity reported

I I Surveillance not conducted

Figure 26.14 Distribution of Encephalitis-Causing Arboviruses Reported presence of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), and western equine encephalitis (WEE) viruses in mosquitoes, sentinels, or wild birds, United States, 1996 to 1997.

illness. The nerves of sensation, touch, pain, and temperature are not affected.

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