Sum

2.1 Atoms and Elements

1. Atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. (Figure 2.1)

2. An element consists of a single type of atom.

2.2 Chemical Bonds and the Formation of Molecules

1. For maximum stability, the outer orbital of electrons of an atom must be filled. The electrons in different orbitals have different energy levels. Bonds form between atoms to fill their outer orbitals with electrons.

Covalent Bonds

1. Covalent bonds are strong bonds formed by atoms sharing electrons. (Figure 2.2)

Non-Polar and Polar Covalent Bonds

1. When atoms have an equal attraction for electrons, a non-polar covalent bond is formed between them. (Table 2.2)

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