28.1 Anatomy and Physiology (Figure 28.1)
1. The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it into thick-walled arteries; the right side of the heart receives blood depleted of oxygen from the veins and pumps it through the lungs.
2. Arteries have thick muscular walls and begin to develop arteriosclerosis in the teenage years or before. The possible role of bacteria and viruses in the formation of arteriosclerotic lesions is under investigation.
3. Lymphatics, lymph vessels, are blind-ended tubes that take up fluid that leaks from capillaries. They also take up bacteria, which are normally trapped by lymph nodes distributed along the course of the lymphatics.
4. The spleen filters unwanted material such as bacteria and damaged erythrocytes from the arterial blood. It becomes enlarged in diseases such as infectious mononucleosis and malaria.
28.2 Bacterial Diseases of the Blood Vascular System
1. Bacteria circulating in the bloodstream can colonize the inside of the heart, and they can cause collapse of the circulatory system and death.
2. Infections of the heart valves and lining of the heart are called endocarditis; illness resulting from circulating pathogens is called septicemia.
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