Structure and Arrangement of Flagella

Flagella are composed of three basic parts (figure 3.39). The filament is the portion extending into the exterior environment. It is composed of identical subunits of a protein called fla-gellin. These subunits form a chain that twists into a helical structure with a hollow core. Connecting the filament to the cell surface is a curved structure, the hook. The basal body anchors the flagellum to the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane.

The numbers and arrangement of flagella can be used to characterize flagellated bacteria. For example, E. coli have flagella distributed over the entire surface, an arrangement called

Polar Flagella

peritrichous (peri means "around"). Other common bacteria have a polar flagellum, a single flagellum at one end of the cell. Less commonly, bacteria may have a tuft of flagella at one or both ends of a cell.

Detox Diet Basics

Detox Diet Basics

Our internal organs, the colon, liver and intestines, help our bodies eliminate toxic and harmful  matter from our bloodstreams and tissues. Often, our systems become overloaded with waste. The very air we breathe, and all of its pollutants, build up in our bodies. Today’s over processed foods and environmental pollutants can easily overwhelm our delicate systems and cause toxic matter to build up in our bodies.

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