Review Q

Short Answer

1. Describe three types of symbiotic relationships.

2. Describe two situations that can lead to changes in the composition of the normal flora.

3. What is the difference between acute, chronic, and latent disease?

4. Why are Koch's Postulates not sufficient to establish the cause of all infectious diseases?

5. Describe the four general mechanisms by which microorganisms cause disease.

6. Describe two mechanisms that bacteria use to invade mucous membranes.

7. Explain how capsules enable an organism to be serum resistant and avoid phagocytosis.

8. Give an example of a neurotoxin, an enterotoxin, and a cytotoxin.

9. Describe two mechanisms a virus might use to prevent the induction of apoptosis in an infected cell.

10. How do Schistosoma species avoid antibodies?

Multiple Choice

1. Opportunistic pathogens are least likely to affect which of the following groups:

A. AIDS patients B. cancer patients C. college students D. drug addicts E. transplant recipients

2. Capsules are thought to interfere with which of the following:

A. Opsonization by complement proteins

B. Opsonization by antibodies

C. Recognition by T cells

D. Recognition by B cells

E. Phagosome-lysosome fusion

3. The C5a peptidase enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes breaks down C5a, resulting in

A. lysis of the Streptococcus cells.

B. lack of opsonization of Streptococcus cells.

C. killing of phagocytes.

D. decreased accumulation of phagocytes.

E. inhibition of membrane attack complexes.

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