Principles of Immunization

Naturally acquired immunity is the acquisition of adaptive immunity through normal events, such as exposure to an infectious agent. Immunization mimics those same events, protecting against disease by inducing what is termed artificially acquired immunity (figure 17.1). The protection provided by immunization can be either active or passive.

Active Immunity

Active immunity is the result of an immune response in an individual upon exposure to antigen. Specific B and T lympho-

Natural exposure to antigen induces an immune response; immunity following an attack of measles.

Transfer of antibodies or cells produced by others; temporary immunity from antibodies of the mother transferred to infant across the placenta or in milk.

Deliberate exposure

Antibodies in

to antigen induces

immune serum are

an immune response;

introduced into body;

immunization of

injection of rabies

children.

immune globulin after

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