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Figure 3.26 Proton Motive Force The series of compounds within the membrane called the electron transport chain ejects protons from the cell.This creates an electrochemical gradient, which is a form of energy called proton motive force.The controlled flow of protons back into the cell releases energy.This is used to drive flagella and certain transport systems. It can also be used to synthesize ATP.

of charged ions creates an electrochemical gradient across the membrane; inherent in it is a form of energy, called proton motive force. This is analogous to the energy stored in a battery. ■ electron transport chain, p. 147

The energy of a proton motive force can be harvested by mechanisms that allow protons to move back across the membrane and into the cell. This is used directly to drive certain cellular processes, including some transport mechanisms that carry small molecules across the membrane and some forms of motility. It is also used to synthesize ATP. ■ ATP, p. 24

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