Short Answer

1. Differentiate between an atom, an element, an ion, and a molecule.

2. Which solution is more acidic, one with a pH of 4 or a pH of 5? What is the concentration of H+ ions in each? The concentration of OH ~ ions?

3. How do the two types of nucleic acids differ from one another in (a) composition, (b) size, and (c) function?

4. Name the subunits of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.

5. What are the two major groups of lipids? Give an example of each group. What feature is common to all lipids?

6. How does the primary structure of a protein determine its overall structure?

7. Why is water a good solvent?

8. Give an example of a dehydration synthesis reaction. Give an example of a hydrolysis reaction. How are these types of reactions related?

9. List four functions of proteins. 10. What is a steroid?

Multiple Choice

1. Choose the list that goes from the lightest to the heaviest:

A. Proton, atom, molecule, compound, electron

B. Atom, proton, compound, molecule, electron

C. Electron, proton, atom, molecule, compound

D. Atom, electron, proton, molecule, compound

E. Proton, atom, electron, molecule, compound

2. The strongest chemical bonds between two atoms in solution are A. covalent. B. ionic.

C. hydrogen bonds. D. hydrophobic interactions.

3. Dehydration synthesis is involved in the synthesis of all of the following, except

A. DNA. B. proteins. C. polysaccharides.

D. lipids. E. monosaccharides.

4. The primary structure of a protein relates to its

A. sequence of amino acids. B. length. C. shape.

D. solubility. E. bonds between amino acids.

5. Pure water has all of the following properties, except

A. polarity.

B. ability to dissolve lipids.

D. covalent joining of its atoms.

E. ability to form hydrogen bonds.

6. The macromolecules that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in an approximate ratio of 1:2:1 are

A. proteins. B. lipids. C. polysaccharides.

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