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1. How does contamination of the eye lead to upper respiratory infection?

2. After you recover from strep throat, can you get it again? Explain why or why not.

3. Where is the gene for diphtheria toxin production located?

4. Describe two ways to decrease the chance of contracting a cold.

5. What kinds of diseases are caused by adenoviruses?

6. How do alcoholism and cigarette smoking predispose a person to pneumonia?

7. Give a mechanism by which Klebsiella sp. become antibiotic-resistant.

8. Why does the incidence of whooping cough rise promptly when pertussis immunizations are stopped?

9. Why are two or more antitubercular medications used together to treat tuberculosis?

10. Why did it take so long to discover the cause of Legionnaires' disease?

11. What are the differences between antigenic drift and shift of influenza virus?

12. Name the infectious form of C. immitis, and of H. capsulatum. Multiple Choice

1. The following are all complications of streptococcal pharyngitis, except

A. quinsy. B. scarlet fever. C. chorea. D. acute rheumatic fever. E. Reye's syndrome.

2. All of the following are true of diphtheria, except

A. a membrane that forms in the throat can cause suffocation.

B. a toxin is produced that acts by ADP ribosylation.

C. the causative organism typically invades the bloodstream.

D. immunization with a toxoid prevents the disease.

E. nerve injury with paralysis is common.

3. Adenoviral infections generally differ from the common cold in all the following ways, except adenoviral infections are

A. not caused by picornaviruses.

B. often associated with fever.

C. likely extensively to involve the cornea and conjunctiva.

D. much more likely to cause pneumonia.

E. associated with negative cultures for Streptococcus pyogenes.

4. All are true of mycoplasmal pneumonia, except

B. it usually does not require hospitalization.

C. penicillin is ineffective for treatment.

D. it is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia in college students.

E. the infectious dose of the causative organism is low.

5. All of the following are true of Legionnaires' disease, except

A. the causative organism can grow inside amebas.

B. it spreads readily from person to person.

C. it is more likely to occur in long-term cigarette smokers than in nonsmokers.

D. it is often associated with diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms.

E. it can be contracted from household water supplies.

6. Which of the following infectious agents is most likely to cause a pandemic?

A. Influenza A virus

B. Streptoccus pyogenes

C. Histoplasma capsulatum

D. Sin Nombre virus

E. Coccidioides immitis

7. Respiratory syncytial virus

A. is a leading cause of bronchiolitis in infants.

B. is an enveloped DNA virus of the adenovirus family.

C. attaches to host cell membranes by means of neuraminidase.

D. poses no threat to elderly people.

E. mainly causes disease in the summer months.

8. In the United States, hantaviruses

A. are limited to southwestern states.

B. are carried only by deer mice.

C. infect human beings with a fatality rate above 40%.

D. were first identified in the early 1970s.

E. are contracted mainly in bat caves.

9. All of the following are true of coccidioidomycosis, except

A. it is contracted by inhaling arthrospores.

B. it is caused by a dimorphic fungus.

C. endospores are produced within a spore.

D. it is more common in Maryland than in California.

E. it is often associated with painful nodules on the legs.

10. The disease histoplasmosis

A. is caused by an encapsulated bacterium.

B. is contracted by inhaling arthrospores.

C. occurs mostly in hot, dry, and dusty areas of the American Southwest.

D. is a threat to AIDS patients living in areas bordering the Mississippi River.

E. is commonly fatal for pigeons and bats.

Applications

1. A physician is advising the family on the condition of a diphtheria patient. How would the physician explain why the disease affects some tissues and not others?

2. What should a physician's response be to a mother's question whether her daughter can get pneumococcal pneumonia again?

Critical Thinking

1. If all transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from one person to another were stopped, how long would it take for the world to be rid of the disease?

2. Medications that prevent and treat influenza by binding to neuraminidase on the viral surface, act against all the kinds of influenza viruses that infect humans. What does this imply about the nature of the interaction between the medications and the neuraminidase molecules?

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