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7. Name three food products produced with the aid of microorganisms.

8. In photosynthesis, what is encompassed by the term light-independent reactions?

9. Unlike the oxygenic phototrophs, the anoxygenic phototrophs do not evolve oxygen (O2). Why not?

10. What is the role of transamination in amino acid biosynthesis?

166 Chapter 6 Metabolism: Fueling Cell Growth Multiple Choice

1. Which of these environmental factors does not affect general enzyme activity?

A. Temperature B. Inhibitors C. Coenzymes D. Humidity E. pH

2. Which of the following statements is false? Enzymes...

A. bind to substrates.

B. lower the energy of activation.

C. convert coenzymes to products.

D. speed up biochemical reactions.

E. can be named after the kinds of reaction they catalyze.

3. Which of these is not a coenzyme?

4. What is the end product of glycolysis?

A. Glucose B. Citrate C. Oxaloacetate

D. a-ketoglutarate E. Pyruvate

5. The major pathway(s) of central metabolism are.

A. glycolysis and the TCA cycle only.

B. glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway.

C. glycolysis only.

D. glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway only.

E. the TCA cycle only.

6. Which of these pathways has the potential to produce the most ATP?

A. TCA cycle

B. Pentose phosphate pathway

C. Lactic acid fermentation

D. Alcohol fermentation

E. Glycolysis

7. In fermentation, the terminal electron acceptor is. A. oxygen (O2). B. hydrogen (H2).

C. carbon dioxide (CO2). D. an organic compound.

8. In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, the energy of proton motive force is used to generate.

9. In the TCA cycle, the carbon atoms contained in acetate are converted into .

A. lactic acid. B. glucose. C. glycerol. D. CO2. E. all of these

10. Degradation of fats as an energy source involves all of the following, except .

A. ^-oxidation. B. acetyl-CoA. C. glycerol. D. lipase. E. transamination.

Applications

1. A worker in a cheese-making facility argues that whey, a nutrient-rich by-product of cheese, should be dumped in a nearby pond where it could serve as fish food. Explain why this proposed action could actually kill the fish by depleting the oxygen in the pond.

2. Scientists working with DNA in vitro often store it in solutions that contain EDTA, a chelating agent that binds magnesium (Mg2+). This is done to prevent enzymes called DNases from degrading the DNA. Explain why EDTA would interfere with enzyme activity.

Critical Thinking

1. A student argued that aerobic and anaerobic respiration should produce the same amount of ATP. He reasoned that they both use basically the same process; only the terminal electron acceptor is different. What is the primary error in this student's argument?

2. Chemolithotrophs near hydrothermal vents support a variety of other life forms there. Explain how their role there is analogous to that of photosynthetic organisms in terrestrial environments.

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