Mutations, changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, may result in proteins that are non-functional, thereby altering the properties of the cell. A leaky mutation results in a partially functional protein; a knockout mutation results in a non-functional protein. Mutations most commonly occur spontaneously as a result of mistakes in DNA replication.

■ How would the growth requirements change in a cell that has a silent mutation in a gene for histidine synthesis? How would it change if the mutation were a knockout?

■ Would the addition of three bases to DNA always lead to a frameshift mutation? Explain your answer.

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