Genes for virulence factors are often transferred between bacteria by the usual means of transduction, transformation, and conjugation. Plasmids may carry one or more virulence genes. In addition, groups of virulence genes clustered on the chromosome form pathogenicity islands that are transferred together.
■ How could dead bacteria of one strain confer virulence on another strain?
■ Why should a pathogenicity island contain several virulence factors and not just one?
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