End products of biosynthetic pathways typically repress expression of the associated enzymes, whereas substrates of degradative pathways typically induce the expression of the associated enzymes. Signal

Future Challenges transduction allows a cell to respond to changing conditions outside of that cell. The expression of some genes changes randomly, presumably enhancing the chances of survival of at least a subset of a population of cells under varying environmental conditions.

■ Explain the mechanism by which glucose represses the lactose operon.

■ Explain the mechanism by which certain bacteria can "sense'' the density of cells.

■ Why would it be advantageous for a bacterium to be able to synthesize more than one type of homoserine lactone?

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