Enzymes may be constitutive, inducible, or repressible. A repressor blocks transcription when it binds to an operator. An activator enhances transcription when it binds to an activator-binding site. The functioning of specific activators and repressors may require or be blocked by other molecules.

■ Explain the difference between a constitutive enzyme and an inducible enzyme.

■ Explain how an inducer could affect either a repressor or an activator.

■ Why would it be advantageous for a cell to control the activity of an enzyme as well as its synthesis?

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