Replication is the process of duplicating double-stranded DNA. Transcription is the process of copying the information encoded in DNA into RNA. Translation is the process of interpreting the information carried by messenger RNA in order to synthesize the encoded protein.

■ How does the 5' end of DNA differ from the 3' end?

■ If the nucleotide sequence of one strand of DNA is 5' ACGTTGCA 3', what is the sequence of the complementary strand?

■ Why is a short-lived RNA important in cell control mechanisms?

7.2 DNA Replication

DNA is replicated in order to create a second DNA molecule, identical to the original. Each of the two cells generated during binary fission then receives one complete copy. ■ binary fission, p. 84 DNA replication is generally bidirectional. From a distinct starting point in circular DNA, replication proceeds in opposite directions, creating an ever-expanding "bubble" of two identical replicated portions of the chromosome (figure 7.4). Bidirectional replication allows an entire chromosome to

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