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Respiration uses the NADH and FADH2 generated in glycolysis, the transition step, and the TCA cycle to synthesize ATP. The electron transport chain is used to convert reducing power into a proton motive force. ATP synthase then harvests that energy to synthesize ATP. The overall process is called oxidative phosphorylation. In aerobic respiration O2 serves as the terminal electron acceptor; anaerobic respiration employs a molecule other than O2.

■ Why is the overall ATP yield in aerobic respiration only a theoretical number?

■ In bacteria, what is the role of the molecule that serves as a source of vitamin K for humans?

■ Why could an oxidase also be called a reductase?

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