Enzymes facilitate the conversion of a substrate into a product with extraordinary speed and specificity; furthermore, they are neither consumed nor permanently changed in the reaction. Some enzymes act with the assistance of a cofactor. Environmental factors influence enzyme activity and, by doing so, determine how rapidly bacteria multiply. The activity of allosteric enzymes can be regulated. A variety of different compounds adversely affect enzyme activity.

■ Explain why sulfa drugs preferentially inhibit the growth of bacteria and not the host.

Table 6.6 Characteristics of Enzyme Inhibitors

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