The prokaryotic chromosome is usually a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that contains all of the genetic information required by a cell. Plasmids encode information that is advantageous to a cell in certain conditions. Ribosomes are the structures that facilitate the joining of amino acids to form a protein. Storage granules are polymers synthesized from a nutrient that a cell has in relative excess. Gas vesicles provide buoyancy to a cell. An endospore is a highly resistant dormant stage produced by members of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.

■ Explain how glycogen granules benefit a cell.

■ Explain why endospores are an important consideration for the canning industry.

■ Why are the processes of sporulation and germination not considered a mechanism of multiplication?

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