Microcheck 313

The nucleus, which contains DNA, is the predominant distinguishing feature of eukaryotes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts generate energy in the form of ATP;

mitochondria oxidize organic compounds to obtain energy, whereas chloroplasts harvest the energy of sunlight. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site where proteins not destined for the cytoplasm are synthesized. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions in lipid synthesis and degradation, and calcium ion storage. The Golgi apparatus modifies and sorts molecules synthesized in the rough ER. Lysosomes are the structures within which digestion takes place; peroxisomes are the organelles in which oxygen is used to oxidize substances.

■ What is the function of a histone?

Secretory vesicles

Figure 3.58 Golgi Apparatus Site where macromolecules synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified before being transported to other destinations in vesicles.

Secretory vesicles

0.57 mm

Vesicle

0.57 mm

Vesicle

Figure 3.58 Golgi Apparatus Site where macromolecules synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified before being transported to other destinations in vesicles.

■ How does the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum differ from that of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

■ If enzymes contained in a peroxisome are to act on a substrate, what must first occur?

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