Gated channels allow specific ions to pass across the membrane. Carriers facilitate the passage of molecules across the membrane and often use energy. Receptor-mediated endocytosis allows cells to internalize specific small molecules. Protozoa and phagocytes internalize bacteria and debris by phagocytosis. Exocytosis is used to expel material. Secreted proteins are translocated across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum as they are being made.
■ How does a cell bring in ligands?
■ How is the formation of an endocytic vesicle different from that of a phagosome?
■ How might a bacterium resist the killing effects of a phagolysosome?
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