The genitourinary system is one of the portals of entry for pathogens. Many antimicrobial medications are excreted in the urine in concentrations higher than in the blood. The flushing action of urination is a key defense mechanism against bladder infections. The fallopian tubes can provide a passageway for pathogens to enter the abdominal cavity. The uterine cervix is a common site of infection by sexually transmitted pathogens. Prostate enlargement predisposes men to urinary infection.
■ Name two kinds of cells that help defend the bladder against infection.
■ Would ammonia make the urine basic? How?
25.3 Urinary System Infections 635
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